Artuk Bey

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Zaheer-ul-Daulah Artuk Beg
Governor of Jerusalem
In office
1085–1091
Succeeded byIlghazi and Sökmen
Personal details
Bornunknown
Died1091
Jerusalem, Seljuk Empire
NationalityOghuz Turk from the Doger tribe[1]
Military service
AllegianceSeljuk Empire
RankGeneral
Battles/warsBattle of Manzikert (1071)
Conquest of Amid (1085)
Battle of Ain Salm (1086)

Zaheer-ul-Daulah Artuk Beg, known as Artuk Bey, was a Turkmen commander of the Seljuk Empire in the 11th century, chief of the Oghuz tribe of Doger, and eponymous founder of the Artuqid dynasty.[2][3] His father's name was Eksük. He was the Seljuk governor of Jerusalem between 1085–1091. Although the Artuqid dynasty was named after him, actually the dynasty was founded by his sons Sökmen and Ilghazi after his death. He was also father to Alp-Yaruq, Bahram, Abd al-Jabar, and three other sons.[4]

In Anatolia[edit]

Artuk Bey was one of the commanders of the Great Seljuk Empire army during the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. After the battle, he took part in the conquest of Anatolia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire. He captured the Yeşilırmak (Ancient Greek: Ἶρις) valley in 1074. In 1075, Artuk captured on behalf of the Byzantine Empire the Norman rebell Roussel de Bailleul and handed him over to the future emperor Alexios Komnenos.[5] He also served the sultan by quashing a rebellion in 1077.[6]

His next mission was a campaign in 1086 to capture Diyarbakır (Amid) from the Marwanids. In this campaign he quarreled with the commander-in-chief Fakhr al-Dawla ibn Jahir who tended to make peace with Marwanids. In a surprise attack he defeated reinforcements to Marwanids. However, when the sultan Malik Shah I heard about the event he accused Artuk.[7]

In Syria[edit]

Artuk left the battle field and attended to Tutush I who was Malik Shah's discordant younger brother in Syria in 1084. In 1086 he was instrumental in defeating Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, the sultan of Seljuks of Rûm in the battle of Ain Salm between Süleyman and Tutush.[8]

In Jerusalem[edit]

Tutush granted him al-Quds (Jerusalem) as an iqta and Artuk was governor there until his death in 1091. His grave is in a tomb next to his khanqah near the Gate of al-Dawadariya, known as Gate of King Faisal today.

In popular culture[edit]

In the Turkish TV series, Diriliş: Ertuğrul, he is portrayed as a close companion of Ertuğrul by the Turkish actor, Ayberk Pekcan.[9] This is anachronistic as Ertuğrul died in 1280 and their live spans most likely did not overlapped.

Citation[edit]

  1. ^ "İslâm Ansiklopedisi Online (in Turkish)" PDF "TDV Encyclopedia of Islam" Archived 2014-11-10 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 25 March 2015
  2. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1976). The Medieval Islamic Underworld: The Banū Sāsān in Arabic life and lore. E.J. Brill. pp. 107–134. The Artuqids, descendants of Artuq b. Ekseb, were a Turkmen dynasty established in Diyarbakr...
  3. ^ E. J. Van Donzel, ed. (1994). Islamic Desk Reference. Brill. p. 39. Artuqids. Turkmen dynasty which reigned over....
  4. ^ Hillenbrand, Carole, History of the Jazira, 1100-1150:  The Contribution of ibn al-Azraq al-Fariqi,  Ph.D. thesis, University of Edinburgh, 1979, pg. 620
  5. ^ "Artuq, Turkish amir". Prosography of the Byzantine World. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  6. ^ Yüce- Sevim p.164
  7. ^ Yüce-Sevim, p.68
  8. ^ Ibn al-Athir 2002, p. 224.
  9. ^ haberler, Son (2019-08-05). "Diriliş Artuk Bey kimdir". www.sonhaberler.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-02-22.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

Sources[edit]

  • Ibn al-Athir (2002). The Annals of the Saljuq Turks. Translated by Richards, D.S. Routledge.
  • Yücel, Yaşar; Sevim, Ali (1990). Türkiye Tarihi Cilt I. Ankara: AKDTYK Yayınları.