Custody of the Holy Land

Coordinates: 31°46′45″N 35°13′39″E / 31.7791°N 35.2275°E / 31.7791; 35.2275
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Custody of the Holy Land
Latin: Custodia Terræ Sanctæ
Formation1217 (1217)
FounderSaint Francis of Assisi
Founded atPorziuncola, Assisi, Umbria
Purpose"The grace of the Holy Places"
HeadquartersMonastery of Saint Saviour
Holy Land; Middle East
ServicesFathers of the Holy Sepulchre
Father Francesco Patton
Father Dobromir Jasztal
General Secretary
Father Marco Carrara
Parent organization
Order of Friars Minor
AffiliationsLatin Patriarchate of Jerusalem
Order of the Holy Sepulchre

The Custody of the Holy Land (Latin: Custodia Terræ Sanctæ) is a custodian priory of the Order of Friars Minor in Jerusalem, founded as the Province of the Holy Land in 1217 by Saint Francis of Assisi, who had also founded the Franciscan Order in 1209. In 1342, the Franciscans were declared by two papal bulls as the official custodians of the Holy Places in the name of the Catholic Church.[1]

The Custody headquarters are located in the Monastery of Saint Saviour, a 16th-century Franciscan monastery near the New Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem. The office can bestow—only to those entering its office—the Jerusalem Pilgrim's Cross upon deserving Catholic visitors to the city.[citation needed]

The Franciscans trace their presence in the Holy Land to 1217. By 1229, the friars had a small house near the fifth station of the Via Dolorosa and in 1272 were permitted to settle in the Cenacle on Mount Zion. In 1309 they also settled in Bethlehem and the Holy Sepulchre along with the Canons Regular.

After the final fall of the second Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1291, the title of Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem was vested in the Custody ex officio in Rome, while resuming its activities in the Holy Land, including surveilling the accolades of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre 1342–1489 until its Grand Magistry was vested in the papacy. Following the restoration of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem as residential episcopal see in 1847, the Patriarch henceforth additionally assumed the position of the order's ecclesiastical superior, eventually supplanting the Custody of the Holy land as Grand Prior of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre.

The Custody of the Holy Land has repeatedly expressed concern about the survival of the Christians in the Holy Land, including the strained situation for Christians in the rest of the Middle East.[2] Between 2004 and 2016, the Custodial Curia was led by Custos Fr. Pierbattista Pizzaballa.[3][4] Since 2016, the chief custodian has been Francesco Patton.


The mission of the Custody of the Holy Land is to guard "the grace of the Holy Places" of the Holy Land and the rest of the Middle East, "sanctified by the presence of Jesus",[5] as well as pilgrims visiting them, on behalf of the Catholic Church.[6][7]


Oldest known portrait in existence of Saint Francis of Assisi, who founded the Order of Friars Minor and its Custody of the Holy Land, dating back to his retreat to Subiaco (1223–1224); depicted without the stigmata.[8]

An online history, The Franciscan Presence in the Holy Land, has been prepared by the Custodian Emeritus (later Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem), Pierbattista Pizzaballa, OFM.

The Franciscan presence in the Holy Land started in 1217, when the province of Syria was established, with Frater (Brother) Elias of Cortona as Minister. By 1229, the friars had a small house near the fifth station of the Via Dolorosa. In 1272 the Sultan Baibars of Egypt permitted the Franciscans to settle in the Cenacle (also called the Upper Room) on Mount Sion. Later on, in 1309, they also settled in Bethlehem and in the Holy Sepulchre, along with the Canons Regular.

Saint Francis before Sultan Al-Kamil of Egypt, witnessing the trial by fire (wall fresco, Giotto)

During the difficult years of the Great War, many friars belonging to the enemy nations fighting against the Ottomans and Germans were deported.[9] In 1917, when the Italian friars were just about to be sent away, reprieve came in the last minute, which was attributed to the triduum celebrated that year in honour of St Anthony of Padua, a saint venerated for his miracles.[9] Consequently, in 1920, St Anthony was chosen as the patron saint of the Custody.[9]

In 1333, Robert d'Anjou, King of Naples, and his wife, Sancia of Majorca, bought the Cenacle from the Sultan of Egypt and gave it to the Franciscans. In 1342, Pope Clement VI, by the Papal bulls Gratiam agimus and Nuper charissimae declared the Franciscans as the official custodians of the Holy Places in the name of the Catholic Church.[1] A portion reads:

A short time ago good news from the king and queen reached our Apostolic See relating that, at great cost and following difficult negotiations, they had obtained a concession from the Sultan of Babylon [that is, Cairo], who to the intense shame of Christians occupies the Holy Sepulchre of the Lord and the other Holy Places beyond the sea that were sanctified by the blood of this same Redeemer, to wit that friars of your Order may reside continuously in the church known as the Sepulchre and celebrate there Solemn Sung Masses and the Divine Office in the manner of the several friars of this Order who are already present in this place; moreover, this same Sultan has also conceded to the King and Queen the Cenacle of the Lord, the chapel where the Holy Spirit was manifested to the Apostles and the other chapel in which Christ appeared to the Apostles after his resurrection, in the presence of Blessed Thomas; and also the news of how the Queen built a convent on Mount Zion where, as is known, the Cenacle and the said chapels are located; where for some time she has had the intention of supporting twelve friars of your Order to assure the divine Liturgy in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, along with three laymen charged with serving the friars and seeing to their needs.[10]

Church of the Holy Sepulchre (1885). Other than some restoration work, its appearance has essentially not changed since 1854. The Immovable Ladder, the small ladder below the top-right window, is also visible in recent photographs; this has remained in the same position since 1754 over a disagreement to remove it.

The Custodian was described as the "Guardian of Mount Zion in Jerusalem". Between 1342 and 1489, the Custodian was the head of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre and held the ex officio title of Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. From 1374, he was based at the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome.

In 1489, Pope Innocent VIII suppressed the Order of the Holy Sepulchre and ruled that it was to be merged with the Knights Hospitaller. In 1496, Pope Alexander VI, restored the Order of Holy Sepulchre to independent status, but the Custodian ceased to be the head of the Order. Instead, a Grand Master of the Order was created, and the office vested in the papacy. The Custodian continued to act as the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem ex officio until 1830, and by being appointed to both offices until 1905. The office of Grand Master remained vested in the papacy until 1949.[11] On 29 August 2011, Archbishop Edwin Frederick O'Brien was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI Grand Master to succeed Cardinal John Patrick Foley, who resigned the office on 24 February 2011 due to ill health. The Order is a member of many international bodies and has observer status at others (such as the United Nations). The Grand Master is a papal viceroy who assists Vatican diplomacy with procedural support for making motions, proposing amendments and requiring votes in the sphere of international diplomacy.

Franciscan friars cared for the Cenacle, restoring also the building with Gothic vaults, until the Ottoman Empire captured Jerusalem and banished all Christians. After the Franciscan friars' eviction, the Cenacle was transformed into a mosque. Christians were not allowed to use the room for prayer until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.

In 1623, the Latin Province of the Holy Land was split into a number of smaller entities, called Custodies – creating Custodies of Cyprus, Syria, and the Holy Land proper. The Custody of the Holy Land included the monasteries of Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Antioch, Sidon, Tyre, Jerusalem and Jaffa.

In 1847, a resident Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem was restored in the Holy Land, together with the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem became the ecclesiastical superior of the Order, and eventually assumed the title Grand Prior, supplanting the Custodian. The office of Grand Master still remained vested in the papacy.

In 1937, Alberto Gori was appointed Custodian of the Holy Land, an office he would occupy until 1949, when he was appointed Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, an office he held until 1970. In Gori's reports to the Vatican in the 1940s, he was critical of Jewish and later Israeli forces, whom he accused of destruction of holy places.[12] Despite repeated Israeli assurances that Israel will guarantee freedom of religion and safeguard the Holy Places of all religions, Pope Pius XII issued several encyclicals expressing concerns about the holy places as well as access.[13] In 1949, at the time of appointing Gori to the office of Latin Patriarch, Pius XII also relinquished the title of Grand Master.[14]


Franciscan monks during the procession on the Calvary in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre(2006).

On 15 May 2004, Fr. Pierbattista Pizzaballa was appointed Custodian of the Holy Land,[15] succeeding Giovanni Battistelli, who held the office for six years.[3][4] On Friday, 28 June 2013, Pope Francis confirmed that he would continue as Custodian for at least a further three years.[16] Pierbattista Pizzaballa was born in Cologno al Serio, Italy, on 21 April 1965. He was ordained a priest in September 1990. Since 2016, the chief custodian has been Francesco Patton.

The Custodian of the Holy Land, also called the International Custodian of the Holy Land, is appointed by the General Definitorium of the Order of Friars Minor (OFM) of the Franciscans and approved by the Pope and the Holy See.[4]

The Custodian has the role of Minister Provincial (i.e. major superior) of the Franciscans living in Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, parts of Egypt, Cyprus and Rhodes. The Custody has about 300 friars and about 100 sisters in these countries. The Franciscans serve the principal Christian shrines, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, Basilica of the Nativity in Bethlehem and the Basilica of the Annunciation in Nazareth.[17]

During the later Middle Ages and early modern times the Custody was official provider of hospitality for Latin pilgrims to the Holy Land, i.e. Westerners be they Catholic or Protestant. Such facilities existed primarily at Jaffa and in Jerusalem

Properties in the Holy Land[edit]

The church of the Monastery of Saint Saviour in Jerusalem.

The Franciscan order owns a great deal of property in the Holy Land, second only to the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem. In addition to the major shrines of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem and the Basilica of the Nativity in Bethlehem, which the Franciscans own and administer in common with the Jerusalem Orthodox and Armenian Orthodox patriarchates, the Custodian also cares for 74 shrines and sanctuaries throughout the Holy Land, including properties in Syria and Jordan.[18]

In 1909, in the territory of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, re-instituted in 1847, the Franciscans had 24 convents and 15 parishes, including numerous schools.[19]

The Custodian's offices are at the Monastery of St Saviour, a 16th-century Franciscan monastery near New Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem.


Palestinian Christian scouts on Christmas Eve in front of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (2006).


Schools founded by the Franciscan friars include Terra Santa College in Nicosia, Cyprus and Magnificat Institute in Jerusalem.

Media centre[edit]

The Custody has a communications department in charge of the official media in the Holy Land, which is based at the Terra Sancta College in Jerusalem and includes a multimedia centre broadcasting news programmes in different languages, and the editorial office of the Christian Media Center and of the French-language Terre Sainte Magazine.[20]

(La) Terre Sainte/Terra Santa is a magazine first published by the Franciscan Printing Press under the supervision of Custos Diotallevi in 1921 in Italian, French and Spanish and since then in several other languages, such as English as The Holy Land Review since 1975. [21] The Holy Land Review and the content of the platform are not officially published by the Custody and do not necessarily express its viewpoint.[22]

Printing press[edit]

The Custody has long strived to own and operate its own printing press, but was only able to do so in 1847.[23] The machinery was installed at Saint Savior's Monastery in Jerusalem and produced that very year a few small-scale school materials in Arabic, and its first proper book, a billingual Italian-Arabic catechism, these being the first books ever printed in Arabic in Palestine.[23] This "Franciscan print room" later became the Franciscan Printing Press (FPP),[24] which today has its headquarters on the eastern side of the Mount of Olives in Betphage.[24]

In 2005, the FPP has become part of TS Edizioni,[24] where TS stands for Terra Santa. TS Edizioni was established in 2005, is part of the Fondazione Terra Santa, and operates, in Italy, as the publishing centre of the Custody of the Holy Land.[22] It combines the tradition of two Franciscan Holy Land-related institutions, the FPP in Jerusalem, and the Centro propaganda e stampa founded in the 1910s in Milan.[22] TS acts under the patronage of the Custody and co-publishes the institutional collections.[25]

The FPP has enabled the publication in several languages of the research done by the Jerusalem-based Studium Biblicum Franciscanum.[22] Today, the FPP serves the printing needs of the Custody as well as of local publications.[22]

Regional concerns[edit]

Fr. Pizzaballa expressed concern that many Christians were leaving the region, especially the Christians of the Palestinian Territories, and that housing assistance was being offered to discourage emigration. He attributed the exodus to lack of prospects for the future and the political situation.[4]

In 2011, the Catholic News Service (CNS) website aired an interview on Vatican Radio in which Father Pizzaballa alluded to the tense situation for Christians in Syria and Egypt.[2]

List of sanctuaries[edit]

The order manages 50-55 "sanctuaries" across the region.[26][27] Most of these churches were built in the 19th and 20th centuries, and a significant number were designed by Antonio Barluzzi.

Location Sanctuary
Capernaum St. Peter's Church
Cana Wedding Church at Cana
St. Bartholomew the Apostle Church
Hattin[dubious ] Site of the second multiplication of loaves
Jaffa of Nazareth Chapel of Saint James the Apostle
Magdala Site of the birth of Saint Mary Magdalene
Mount Tabor Church of the Transfiguration
Descendentibus Chapel
Site of the healing of the demon-possessed man at Daburiyeh
Nein Church of the Resurrection of the Widow's Son
Nazareth Basilica of the Annunciation
St. Joseph's Church
Mensa Christi Church
Chapel of the Virgin Mary's Fright
Mount Precipice
Sepphoris Home of Saints Joachim and Anne
Tabgha Church of the Primacy of Saint Peter
Church of the Beatitudes
Tiberias St. Peter's Church
Ein Karem Church of Saint John the Baptist
Church of the Visitation
The Desert of Saint John the Baptist
Bethany Tomb of Lazarus
Church of Saint Lazarus
Bethlehem and Beit Sahour Church of the Nativity (shared, see Status Quo)
The Manger of Christ
Grotto and Tomb of Saint Jerome
Chapel of the Milk Grotto
Saint Joseph's House
Chapel of the Shepherds' Field
David's Reservoir
Bethphage Church of Bethphage
Al-Qubeiba St. Cleophas Church
Jerusalem Holy Cenacle (Mount Zion)
Church of the Holy Sepulchre (shared, see Status Quo)
Church of the Flagellation
Lithostrotos Chapel (II Station of the Cross)
Chapel of Simon of Cyrene (V Station of the Cross)
Column of Sentencing of the VII Station of the Cross
Church of All Nations
Gethsemane: Grotto of the Betrayal
Tomb of the Virgin Mary (shared, see Status Quo)
Dominus Flevit Church
Chapel of the Ascension (shared, see Status Quo)
Tomb of the Prophet Isaiah
Jaffa St. Peter's Church
Qasr al-Yahud St. John the Baptist Chapel
Ramla St. Nicodemus and St. Joseph of Arimathea Church
Damascus Saint Ananias House
Site of the Conversion of Saint Paul
Mount Nebo Memorial Church of Moses

List of Custodians[edit]

13th century

1217 – Elia da Cortona[28]
  1. 1219 – Saint Francis of Assisi
  2. 1247 – Giacomo (Narciso?)
  3. 1266 – Giacomo da Puy
  4. ? – Vincentius de Burgundia
  5. 1270? – Giovannino da Parma
  6. 1286 – Geleberto

14th century

  1. 1306 – Guido
  2. 1310 – Rogero Guarini
  3. 1328 – Nicolò da San Martino
  4. 1330 – Giovanni Fedanzola
    1333 – Rogero Guarini[29]
  5. 1337 – Giovanni di Stefano
  6. 1337 – Giacomo Normanno
  7. ? – Nicola di Giovanni
  8. 1363 – Bernardino da Padova
  9. 1372 – Antonio di Giacomo
  10. 1376 – Nicolò da Creta (o Candia)
  11. 1382 – Giovanni
  12. 1384 – Nicolò da Venezia
  13. 1388 – Gerardo Calvetti

15th century

  1. 1400 – Nicolò Coronario
  2. 1405 – Nicolò di Pietro
  3. 1414 – Pascutius Davini de Assisio
  4. 1421 – Giacomo di Antonio
  5. 1424 – Giovanni Belloro
  6. 1430 – Luigi da Bologna
  7. 1434 – Giacomo Delfino
  8. 1438 – Gandolfo da Sicilia
  9. 1446 – Baldassare da Santa Maria
  10. 1455 – Antonio da Mugnano
  11. 1462 – Gabriele Mezzavacca
  12. 1464 – Paolo d'Albenga
  13. 1467 – Francesco da Piacenza
  14. 1472 – Andrea da Parma
  15. 1475 – Giacomo d'Alessandria
  16. 1478 – Giovanni de Thomacellis
  17. 1481 – Paolo da Canneto
  18. 1484 – Bernardino da Parma
    1487 – Francesco da Perugia[30]
  19. 1487 – Bernardino Caimo
  20. 1489 – Bartolomeo da Piacenza
  21. 1493 – Francesco Suriano
  22. 1495 – Angelo da Foligno
    1496 – Bartolomeo da Piacenza[29]
  23. 1499 – Antonio Gozze de Regnis

16th century

  1. 1501 – Mauro da San Bernardino
  2. 1504 – Luigi da Napoli
  3. 1507 – Bernardino del Vecchio
    1512 – Francesco Suriano[29]
  4. 1514 – Nicolò da Tossignano
  5. 1517 – Zenobio da Firenze
  6. 1518 – Gabriele ?
  7. 1519 – Angelo da Ferrara
  8. 1528 – Giovanni
  9. 1532 – Mario da Messina
  10. 1532 – Battista da Macerata
  11. 1535 – Tomaso da Norcia
  12. 1541 – Dionisio da Sarcognano
  13. 1545 – Felice da Venezia
  14. 1544 – Giorgio Bosnese
    1545 – Felice da Venezia[29]
  15. 1547 – Bonaventura Corsetti
  16. 1551 – Bonifacio Stefani
  17. 1559 – Antonio da Bergamo
  18. 1560 – Aurelio da Griano
    1564 – Bonifacio Stefani[29]
  19. 1565 – Bernardino da Collestate
  20. 1566 – Girolamo da Fossato
  21. 1568 – Angelo da Portomaurizio
  22. 1568 – Gian Francesco d'Arsignano Vicent
  23. 1571 – Antonio da Sant'Angelo
  24. 1572 – Geremia da Brescia
  25. 1580 – Giovanni da Bergamo
  26. 1581 – Angelo Stella
  27. 1584 – Paolino Olivoli
  28. 1585 – Accursio da Quinzano
  29. 1588 – Gian Battista da Montegiano
  30. 1590 – Francesco da Spello
  31. 1593 – Felice Ranieri da Fratta
  32. 1593 – Gian Francesco da Salandra
  33. 1597 – Evangelista da Gabiano

17th century

  1. 1600 – Francesco Manerba
  2. 1603 – Cesario da Trino
  3. 1608 – Gaudenzio Saibanti
  4. 1612 – Angelo da Messina
  5. 1616 – Basilio Basili
  6. 1619 – Francesco Dulcedo
  7. 1620 – Tommaso Obicini
  8. 1621 – Ambrogio Pantoliano
  9. 1622 – Francesco Spinelli
  10. 1625 – Sante da Messina
  11. 1628 – Diego Campanile
  12. 1632 – Paolo da Lodi
  13. 1634 – Francesco da Cattaro
  14. 1637 – Andrea d'Arco
  15. 1642 – Pietro Verniero
  16. 1645 – Francesco Merisi
  17. 1648 – Antonio da Gaeta
    1651 – Ambrogio Pantoliano[30]
  18. 1652 – Mariano Morone
  19. 1659 – Eusebio Valles
  20. 1664 – Francesco M. Rhini
  21. 1669 – Teofilo Testa
  22. 1673 – Claudio Gavazzi
  23. 1675 – Tomaso da Caltagirone
  24. 1675 – Giovanni Bonsignori
  25. 1678 – Pier Marino Sormani
  26. 1683 – Pier Antonio Grassi
  27. 1686 – Angelico da Milano
  28. 1689 – Gregorio da Parghelia
  29. 1691 – Gian Battista D'Atina
  30. 1695 – Baldassare Caldera
  31. 1697 – Francesco da Santo Floro

18th century

  1. 1701 – Bonaventura da Majori
  2. 1704 – Benedetto da Bari
  3. 1705 – Costantino Ultorchi
  4. 1706 – Gaetano Potestà
  5. 1710 – Lorenzo Cozza
  6. 1716 – Giuseppe Maria da Perugia
  7. 1720 – Gian Filippo da Milano
  8. 1722 – Giacomo da Lucca
  9. 1730 – Andrea da Montoro
  10. 1735 – Angelico da Gazolo
  11. 1740 – Paolo da Laurino
    1743 – Giacomo da Lucca[29]
  12. 1744 – Desiderio da Casabasciana
  13. 1751 – Prospero Zinelli
  14. 1754 – Pio da Mentone
  15. 1756 – Domenico da Venezia
  16. 1762 – Paolo da Piacenza
  17. 1767 – Luigi da Bastia
  18. 1773 – Valeriano Bellandi
  19. 1773 – Gian Domenico da Levigliano
  20. 1795 – Placido da Roma
  21. 1798 – Ladislao da Viterbo

19th century

  1. 1801 – Zenobio Puccini
  2. 1805 – Bonaventura da Nola
  3. 1808 – Giuseppe M. Pierallini
  4. 1815 – Girolamo da Osimo
  5. 1817 – Salvatore Antonio da Malta
  6. 1820 – Ugolino Cesarini
  7. 1822 – Gian Antonio da Rogliano
  8. 1825 – Tomaso da Montasola
  9. 1831 – Francesco di S. Lorenzo alle Grotte
  10. 1835 – Francesco Saverio da Malta
  11. 1838 – Perpetuo Guasco
  12. 1841 – Cherubino Maria da Cori
  13. 1843 – Cherubino da Civezza
  14. 1847 – Bernardino Trionfetti
  15. 1857 – Bonaventura Robotti
  16. 1863 – Serafino Milani
  17. 1874 – Gaudenzio Bonfigli
  18. 1880 – Guido Corbelli
  19. 1886 – Aurelio Briante
  20. 1888 – Giacomo Ghezzi
    1894 – Aurelio Briante[29]

20th century

  1. 1900 – Frediano Giannini
  2. 1906 – Roberto Razzoli
  3. 1914 – Onorato Carcaterra
  4. 1915 – Serafino Cimino
  5. 1918 – Ferdinando Diotallevi; as Custos he was also member of the Pro-Jerusalem Society's leading Council
  6. 1925 – Aurelio Marotta
  7. 1931 – Nazzareno Jacopozzi
  8. 1937 – Alberto Gori
  9. 1950 – Giacinto Maria Faccio
  10. 1955 – Angelico Lazzeri
  11. 1957 – Alfredo Polidori
  12. 1962 – Vincenzo Cappiello
  13. 1968 – Alfonso Calabrese
  14. 1969 – Erminio Roncari
  15. 1974 – Maurilio Sacchi
  16. 1980 – Ignazio Mancini
  17. 1986 – Carlo Cecchitelli
  18. 1992 – Giuseppe Nazzaro
  19. 1998 – Giovanni Battistelli

21st century

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b The Bull of Clement VI (1342)[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ a b Middle East Christians must be courageous, open, says Franciscan custos
  3. ^ a b "Administration". Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d "Challenges of New Franciscan Custodian of Holy Land: Interview With Father Pierbattista Pizzaballa". ZENIT. 24 May 2004. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  5. ^ John Abela (1 December 2001). "Christian Sanctuaries in the Holy Land". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  6. ^ "The role of the Custos for the Holy Land". Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016.
  7. ^ "The role of the Custos for the Holy Land". Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  8. ^ "Italy/Subiaco". Archived from the original on 13 January 2015.
  9. ^ a b c St. Anthony: patron saint of the Custody of the Holy Land for a hundred years, Giacomo Pizzi for, 15 June 2020. Accessed 15 January 2022.
  10. ^ The Franciscan Presence in the Holy Land, by Fr. Pierbattista Pizzaballa, OFM, Franciscan Printing Press – Jerusalem 2008[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ "Official website page 1". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  12. ^ Paolo Pieraccini, Custos of the Holy Land and Patriarch at the Second Vatican Council
  13. ^ E.g., Auspicia quaedam of 1 May 1948, two weeks before the end of the British Mandate; In multiplicibus curis on 24 October 1948; and Redemptoris nostri cruciatus of 15 April 1949.
  14. ^ "Official website page 2". Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  15. ^ "Father Pierbattista Pizzaballa an SBF professor new Custos of the Holy Land". Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2009.
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ Hareetz: "Senior Catholic cleric: 'If Jews want respect, they must respect others'" By Nir Hasson 7 September 2012
  18. ^ Jerusalem Post Jan 25, 2002 – The gatekeeper
  19. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia
  20. ^ Guarrera, Beatrice (24 August 2020). "Terra Sancta College: a building that has seen history". Jerusalem: Custodia Terrae Sanctae. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  21. ^ Rey, Émilie (10 November 2021). "The Holy Land review celebrates 100 years of Christian history". Retrieved 26 February 2024.
  22. ^ a b c d e "About us". Retrieved 26 February 2024.
  23. ^ a b Leonetti, Arianna (2021). ""The typography is our most beautiful ornament": the birth of the Franciscan Printing Press". Retrieved 26 February 2024.
  24. ^ a b c "The Franciscan Printing Press of Jerusalem between tradition and modernity". 24 May 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2024.
  25. ^ "Franciscan Printing Press". Retrieved 26 February 2024.
  26. ^ THE FRANCISCAN PRESENCE IN THE HOLY LAND, Franciscan Printing Press, Jerusalem, 2018, p.16-17, lists 50 sanctuaries by name
  27. ^ "Sanctuaries". Custodia Terrae Sanctae. Retrieved 6 August 2023. The Custody of the Holy Land has the task of guarding 55 sanctuaries, which are located in the current borders of Israel, Palestine, Jordan.
  28. ^ Leader of the first group of friars sent to Jerusalem after the first General Chapter (1217).
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Second term.
  30. ^ a b He died before his arrival to the Custody.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

31°46′45″N 35°13′39″E / 31.7791°N 35.2275°E / 31.7791; 35.2275