Dhu al-Hijja

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Dhu al-Hijja
The Kaaba during Hajj
Native nameذُو ٱلْحِجَّة (Arabic)
CalendarIslamic calendar
Month number12
Number of days29-30 (depends on actual observation of the moon's crescent)
Significant days

Dhu al-Hijja (Arabic: ذُو ٱلْحِجَّة, romanizedḎū al-Ḥijja IPA: [ðu‿l.ħid͡ʒ.d͡ʒah]) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.[1] Being one of the four sacred months during which war is forbidden, it is the month in which the Ḥajj (Pilgrimage) takes place as well as Eid al-Adha, the “Festival of the Sacrifice.”

The Arabic name of the month, Dhu al-Hijja, means "Possessor of the Pilgrimage" or "The Month of the Pilgrimage".[1] During this month, Muslim pilgrims from all around the world congregate at Mecca to visit the Kaaba. The Hajj rites begin on the eighth day and continue for four or five days. The Day of Arafah takes place on the ninth of the month. Eid al-Adha, the "Festival of the Sacrifice", begins on the tenth day and ends on the thirteenth day.[1]

The name of this month is also spelled Dhul-Hijja or Zu al-Hijja. In modern Turkish, the name is Zilhicce also spelled as Zilhacce.[1]

Timing[edit]

The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year, Dhu al-Hijja migrates throughout the seasons. The estimated start and end dates for Dhu al-Hijja, based on the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia, are:[2]

Dhu al-Hijjah dates between 2022 and 2026
AH First day (CE/AD) Last day (CE/AD)
1443 30 June 2022 29 July 2022
1444 19 June 2023 18 July 2023
1445 07 June 2024 06 July 2024
1446 28 May 2025 25 June 2025
1447 18 May 2026 15 June 2026

Special days[edit]

Mount Arafat during Ḥajj
  • The first 9 days of Dhu al-Hijja for fasting
  • The first 10 nights of Dhu al-Hijja for standing (Qiyaam) in Tahajjud
  • The 8th, 9th and 10th of Dhu al-Hijja as the days of Hajj
  • The 9th of Dhu al-Hijja as the Day of Arafah
  • Takbirut Tashreeq is observed from the 9 Dhu al-Hijja till 13 Dhu al-Hijja
  • The 10th of Dhu al-Hijja as the Day of Eid
  • Eid al-Adha (Festival of the Sacrifice) is observed by Muslims on the hajj and around the world in commemoration of the willingness of Ibrahim (Abraham) to sacrifice his son Isma'il (Ishmael) for Allah, begins on the 10th day of Dhu al-Hijja and ends on sunset of the 13th Dhu al-Hijja
  • 18th Dhu al-Hijja - Eid-al-Ghadeer

Prescribed acts of worship[edit]

The following acts have been prescribed for the first nine days of Dhu al-Hijja:

On the days of Qurbani, i.e. 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhu al-Hijja, the greatest action is the spilling of blood of a sacrificial animal.

Hadiths[edit]

One of the wives[vague] of Muhammad said: "Allah's Messenger used to fast the [first] nine days of Dhul-Hijjah, the day of 'Ashurah, and three days of each month." (Reported by Abu Dawud)[3]

Reward for fasting and Tahajjud[edit]

According to the hadith, great rewards have been mentioned for fasting the first nine days of Dhu al-Hijja and standing in worship (Tahajjud) in the first 10 nights of Dhu al-Hijja:

The Prophet of Allah said: There are no days more beloved to Allah that he be worshipped in them than the ten days of Dhu al-Hijjah, fasting every day of them is equivalent to fasting a year; and standing every night of them (in Salaah) is equivalent to standing on the Night of Qadr.

— Tirmidhi, 758

This hadith has been classed as a daeef(weak) hadith by many scholars,

Narrated by at-Tirmidhi (no. 758); al-Bazzaar (no. 7816) and Ibn Maajah (1728) via Abu Bakr ibn Naafi‘ al-Basri, who said: Mas‘ood ibn Waasil told us, from Nahhaas ibn Qaham, from Qataadah, from Sa‘eed ibn al-Musayyab, from Abu Hurayrah. 

This is a da‘eef isnaad because of an-Nahhaas ibn Qaham and Mas‘ood ibn Waasil. Hence the scholars of hadith unanimously agreed that it is to be classed as da‘eef. 

At-Tirmidhi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

This is a ghareeb hadith, which we know only from the hadith of Mas‘ood ibn Waasil, from an-Nahhaas. 

I asked Muhammad – i.e., al-Bukhaari – about this hadith and he did not know it except via this isnaad. 

Some of this was also narrated from Qataadah, from Sa‘eed ibn al-Musayyab, from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) in a mursal report. Yahya ibn Sa‘eed criticised Nahhaas ibn Qaham with regard to his memory. End quote. 

Al-Baghawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

Its isnaad is da‘eef (end quote) 

Sharh as-Sunnah (2/624) 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

There is some weakness in it. End quote 

Sharh al-‘Umdah (2/555) 

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

Its isnaad is da‘eef. End quote. 

Fath al-Baari (2/534) 

It was classed as da‘eef by Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allah have mercy on him) in as-Silsilah ad-Da‘eefah (no. 5142). 

The reason for the 10 days being distinguished is due to the combination of worship in this period of prayer, fasting, charity, Takbir and Hajj.

From the first nine days of Dhu al-Hijja, it is particularly recommended to fast the Day of Arafah (9 Dhu al-Hijja) as expiation of the sin of two years:

Abu Qatada narrates that Muhammad was asked about fasting on the Day of Arafah. He said: as for the fasting on the Day of Arafah, I anticipate that Allah will forgive the year (i.e. the sins of the year) after it and the year before it.

— Tirmizi, 758

General events[edit]

Sunni[edit]

Shi'ite[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Yaşaroğlu, M.Kâmil (2013). "ZİLHİCCE". TDV Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 44 (Yusuf – Zwemer) (in Turkish). Istanbul: Turkiye Diyanet Foundation, Centre for Islamic Studies. pp. 415–416. ISBN 978-975-389-785-3.
  2. ^ Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia
  3. ^ "Ten Blessed Days of Dhul Hijjah | Soul". Central-mosque.com. Archived from the original on 2013-09-28. Retrieved 2013-09-26.

External links[edit]