Israfil

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The Angel Israfil, by Muhammad ibn Muhammad Shakir Ruzmah-'i Nathani
Israfil in Islamic calligraphy

Israfil (Arabic: إِسْـرَافِـيْـل, Isrāfīl; or Israfel or Rāfā'īl)[1] is the angel who blows the trumpet to signal Qiyamah (the Day of Judgment) in Islam.[2] Though unnamed in the Quran, he is one of the four archangels in Islamic tradition, along with Mīkā'īl, Jibrā'īl, and Azrael.[1] The "Book of Dead" described Israfil as the oldest of all archangels.[3]

It is believed that Israfil will blow the trumpet from a holy rock in Jerusalem to announce the Day of Resurrection.[citation needed] He is commonly thought of as the counterpart of the Judeo-Christian archangel Raphael.[4][5]

George Sale (1697–1736) classifies Israfil, in his translation of the Quran, as the archangel of music in Islamic tradition.[6]

In religious tradition[edit]

Israfil is mentioned in a hadith as the angel nearest to God, mediating the commands of God to the other archangels.[7] Although the name Israfil does not appear in the Quran, a figure blowing a trumpet is repeatedly alluded to, and is assumed to be this figure:

And the trumpet shall be blown, so all those that are in the heavens and all those that are in the earth shall swoon, except him whom Allah will ; then it shall be blown again, then they shall stand up awaiting.

Kitab aḥwāl al-qiyāma, states:

Know that Israfil is the master of the horn [al-qarn]. God created the preserved tablet [al-lawḥ al-maḥfuz] of white pearl. Its length is seven times the distance between the heaven and the earth and it is connected to the Throne. All that exists until the day of resurrection is written on it. Israfil has four wings--one in the East, one in the West, one covering his legs and one shielding his head and face in fear of God. His head is inclined toward the Throne .... No angel is nearer to the throne than Israfil. Seven veils are between him and the Throne, each veil five hundred years distance from the next; seventy veils are between Jibril and Israfil. While he is standing the trumpet [ṣur] is placed on his right · thigh and the head of the trumpet on his mouth. He awaits the command of God, and when He commands he will blow. And when the period of the world is completed, the trumpet will be brought near the face of Israfil and he will fold his four wings and blow the trumpet.[8][9]

A beautiful angel who is a master of music, Israfil sings praises to God in a thousand different languages, the breath of which is used to inject life into hosts of angels who add to the songs themselves.[1] Due to his beautiful voice, he is also the Muezzin of those in Heaven.[10]

Kitab aḥwāl al-qiyāma states he has four wings, however, another tradition mention that he has twelve.[11]

A few reports assume that Israfil had visited Muhammad before Gabriel did.[12]

Mission[edit]

According Saudi scholar Salih bin Abdullah al Humaid, Quranic exegesis (tafsir) states that Israfil will blow the trumpet two times.[13] The first blow will kill all creatures and creations except Israfil himself.[14] Later, Israfil will blow the trumpet for the second time, then all creatures will be revived and wait for judgment.[13]

Aside from his task to blow the Armageddon trumpet, Israfil is mentioned in non-canonical hadith as one of archangels who bear the Throne of God on their back (Hamalat al-Arsh).[15] Meanwhile, According to a Tabi'un tradition which sourced from a Tabi'un named Abdurrahman ibn Sabith, the task of Israfil were transmitting tasks from God to another archangels such as Gabriel, Mikail, and Azrael.[16]

Israfil also said to have been sent along with the other three Islamic archangels to collect dust from the four corners of the earth,[9] though only Azrael succeeded in this mission.[17] It was from this dust that Adam, the first man and Prophet was formed.[18]

According to another traditions, Israfil believed to have helped Muhammad overcome his adversaries significantly during the Battle of Badr, where according to scholars and clerics of Islam, the various hadiths, both authentics and inauthentics, that Gabriel,[19] Israfil, and Michael,[20] [Notes 1] along with another thousands of best angels from third level of sky, all came to the battle of Badr by impersonating appearance of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, a Companions of the Prophet and bodyguard of the prophet.[Notes 2][24] This are deemed as Zubayr personal honor according to Islamic belief.[25][26][Notes 3]

View in other religions[edit]

Israfil has been associated with a number of other angelic names not pertaining to Islam, including Uriel,[4] and Raphael.[5]

See also[edit]

Appendix[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ found in Mustadrak al Sahihayn.[21] The complete narration from Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri were:... Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Yaqoub has reported from Ibrahim bin Abdullah Al-Saadi, who told us Muhammad bin Khalid bin Uthma, told us Musa bin Yaqoub, told me Abu Al-Huwairith, that Muhammad bin Jubayr bin Mut’im told him, that he heard Ali - may God be pleased with him - addresses the people, and he said: While I was leaving from the well of Badr, a strong wind came, the like of which I had never seen, then it left, then came a strong wind, the like of which I have never seen except for the one before it, then it went, then came a strong wind that I did not see before. I have never seen anything like it except for the one before it, and the first wind was Gabriel descended among a thousand angels with the Messenger of God - may God bless him and grant him peace - and the second wind was Michael who descended among a thousand angels to the right of the Messenger of God - may God bless him and his family and grant them peace - and Abu Bakr was On his right, and the third wind was Israfil. He descended with a thousand angels on the side of the Messenger of God - may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family - and I was on the right side. When God Almighty defeated his enemies, the Messenger of God - may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family - carried me on his horse, I blew up, and I fell On my heels, I prayed to God Almighty... Ibn al Mulqin [id], Hadith scholar from Cordoba of 13-14 AD century, evaluate this hadith tha he found weaknesses in Musa ibn Yaqoub and Abu al Huwairith chain, so he deemed there is weakness about this hadith.[22] However, recent scholarship from Ali Hasan al-Halabi has noted there is another hadith which supported the participation of Raphael in Badr[20]
  2. ^ According to one Hadith, Muhammad were told that the angels that appeared in the battle of Badr were highest in status and the "best of angels" according to Gabriel in Hadith narrated by Muhammad.[23]
  3. ^ According to one narration, during the battle, Muhammad has found an angel whom he though as Zubayr standing next to him, which then prompted Muhammad to command him to attack, which the angel, in Zubayr appearance, simply replied, "I am not Zubayr." Thus, according to Hadith expert this another indication that the angels truly came down with the appearance of Zubayr during Badr.[27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Lewis, James R., Evelyn Dorothy Oliver, and S. Sisung Kelle, eds. 1996. Angels A to Z. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 0-7876-0652-9. p. 224.
  2. ^ Webster, Richard (2009). Encyclopedia of angels (1st ed.). Woodbury, he will blow the trumpet when the day comes to the end Minn.: Llewellyn Publications. p. 97. ISBN 9780738714622.
  3. ^ Shaikh Muhammad ibn Habib translated by Aisha Abd- ar Rahman at-Tarjumana Islamic Book of Dead Hadith Concerning the Fire and the Garden Diwan Press 1977 isbn 0 950444618 pp. 33-34
  4. ^ a b "Gabriel." Jewish Encyclopedia.
  5. ^ a b "Israfil" (revised). Encyclopædia Britannica. [1998] 2020.
  6. ^ Pérez, Miguel Rodríguez. "The Harp and the Poet: The Harp as a Metaphor for." p. 36-37
  7. ^ Burge, Stephen. 2015. Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0. p. 92.
  8. ^ Kitab aḥwāl al-qiyāma, pp. 49-50 quoted in Smith, Jane I.; Haddad, Yvonne Y. (1981). The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection. Albany, N Y: SUNY Press. p. 70-71.
  9. ^ a b Davidson, Gustav. 1967. "Israfel." Pp. 151–52 in A Dictionary of Angels, Including The Fallen Angels. New York: Free Press. ISBN 9780029070505. LCCN 66-19757.
  10. ^ Tottoli, Roberto. 2018. "Isrāfīl." Encyclopaedia of Islam 3, edited by K. Fleet, G. Krämer, D. Matringe, J. Nawas, and E. Rowson. Retrieved 9 January 2020. ISBN 9789004356641.
  11. ^ Al-Suyuti (2021). Muhammad as Said Basyuni, Abu Hajir; Yasir, Muhammad (eds.). Misteri Alam Malaikat (Religion / Islam / General) (in Indonesian). Translated by Mishabul Munir. Pustaka al-Kautsar. pp. 17, 30–32. Retrieved 6 February 2022. Quoting Ibnul Mubarak from a book of az-Zuhd; ad Durr al-Manshur, chain narration from Ibnul Mubarak to Ibn SHihab (1/92)
  12. ^ Kraemer, Joel L. 1993. Israel Oriental Studies, Band 13. Brill. ISBN 9789004099012. p. 219.
  13. ^ a b Omar Al-Muqbil; professor Shalih bin Abdullah bin Humaid from Riyadh Tafsir center; Imad Zuhair Hafidz from Markaz Ta'dhim Qur'an Medina; Marwan Hadidi bin Musa Mpdi (2016). "Surat Zumar ayat 68". Tafsirweb (in Indonesian and Arabic). Islamic University of Madinah; Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia); Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Dawah and Guidance. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  14. ^ Omar Al-Muqbil; professor Shalih bin Abdullah bin Humaid from Riyadh Tafsir center; Imad Zuhair Hafidz from Markaz Ta'dhim Qur'an Medina; Marwan Hadidi bin Musa Mpdi (2016). "Surat Zumar Qaf 41". Tafsirweb (in Indonesian and Arabic). Islamic University of Madinah; Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia); Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Dawah and Guidance. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  15. ^ Hakim, Saifuddin (2015). "Apakah Malaikat Israfil Bertugas Meniup Sangkakala pada Hari Kiamat? (2)" [Does angel Raphael tasked to blow the trumpet of Armageddon in the day of judgment? (2)]. Muslim.or.id (in Indonesian). Muslim.or.id. Retrieved 14 December 2021. Tafsir Al-Qurthubi, 7/20 (Maktabah Syamilah); At-Tadzkirah bi Ahwaalil Mauta wa Umuuril Akhirah, 1/488 (Maktabah Syamilah).; Fathul Baari 11/368 (Maktabah Syamilah); see Al-Imaan bimaa Ba’dal Maut, p. 112. ; Syarh Al-Ibanah: Al-Imaan bin Nafkhi Ash-Shuur, 5/33.; Syarh Al-‘Aqidah Al-Washithiyyah, 1/59-60 (Maktabah Asy-Syamilah). while in another book: وذلك أن الله سبحانه وتعالى يأمر اسرافيل وهو أحد الملائكة الموكلين بحمل العرش أن ينفخ في الصور (Syarh Al-‘Aqidah As-Safariyaniyyah, 1/467).
  16. ^ Nur Baits, Ammi. "Mengenal Malaikat Mikail" [knowing Mikail the angel]. Konsultasi Syariah (Sharia consultation) (in Indonesian). Konsultasi Syariah (Sharia consultation). Retrieved 30 January 2022. Hadith narration from Abu Syaikh al-Ashbahani dalam al-Adzamah, no. 294
  17. ^ Weil, Gustav. 1863. "Adam." Pp. 19 in The Bible, the Koran, and the Talmud or Biblical Legends of the Mussulmans. via Internet Sacred Text Archive.
  18. ^ Noegel, Scott B., and Brannon M. Wheeler. 2010. The A to Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-1-461-71895-6. p. 13.
  19. ^ al-Misri, Mahmud (2015). Sahabat-Sahabat Rasulullah vol 1: Zubair bin Awwam [Companion of the Prophet vol 1: Zubair bin Awwam] (in Indonesian and Arabic). Pustaka Ibnu Katsir. p. Shaja'ah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam Radhiyallahu anh (bravery of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam; by Mahmud al-Misri [ar]; official Book review by Basalamah; quoting various supplementary sources such as Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Siyar A'lam Nubala, Al-Tirmidhi, Prophetic biography of Ibn Hisham, etc. ISBN 9789791294386. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  20. ^ a b Hakim, Saifuddin (2015). "Apakah Malaikat Israfil Bertugas Meniup Sangkakala pada Hari Kiamat? (1)". Muslim.or.id (in Indonesian). Muslim.or.id. Retrieved 14 December 2021. [ يا آدم بر حجك ] " ما يروى عن آدم -عليه السلام- أنه لما حج قالت له الملائكة: «يا آدم بر حجك»: غير ثابت. " [من فوائد جلسة مع طلبة العلم /16/ذو الحجة/1432 ] __________________ " ... فهل يحسن بنا وقد أنضينا قرائحنا في تعلم هذه السنة المطهرة، وبذلنا في العمل بها جهد المستطيع، وركبنا المخاطر في الدعوة إليها؛ هل يحسن بنا بعد هذا كله أن نسكت لهؤلاء عن هذه الدعوى الباطلة، ونوليهم منا ما تولوا ونبلعهم ريقهم، وهل يحسن بنا أن لا يكون لنا في الدفاع عنها ما كان منا في الدعوة إليها؟ إنا إذن لمقصرون!..."
  21. ^ al-Nishapuri, al-Hakim. "Kitabu Ma'rifat Shahabatu Radhiyallahu Anhum: Gabriel, Michael and Israfil descend in the Battle of Badr.". al Mustadrak ala Sahihayn. Islamweb: Islamweb. Retrieved 13 December 2021. 4488 - Narrated Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ya'kub, through Ibrahim bin Abdullah Al Saadi , on the authority of Muhammad bin Khalid bin Athmah, on the authority of Musa bin Yaqub , who reported Abu Huwayrith , that Muhammad bin Jabir bin Mut'im, told him
  22. ^ Abu Hafs Umar bin Ali bin Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Abdullah Al-Anshari Al-Wadi Asyi Al-Andalusi At-Tukuruwi Al-Mishri Asy-Syafi`i, Sirajuddin. "كتاب مختصر تلخيص الذهبي" [kitab mukhtasar talkhis aldhahabii]. Islamweb. Islamweb. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  23. ^ Qadhi, Yasir (2016). "Lives Of The Sahaba 39 – Az-Zubayr Ibn Al-Awwam – PT 01". Muslim Central Audio. Muslim Central Audio. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  24. ^ Bin Al-Hassan & Al-Dimashqi (2012, p. 622, Al-Zubayr told us, he said: And Abu Al-Makarram Uqbah bin Makram Al-Dhabi told me, Musab bin Salam Al-Tamimi told me, on the authority of Saad bin Tarif, on the authority of Abu Jaafar Muhammad bin Ali, he said: On the day of Badr, Al-Zubayr bin Al-Awwam had a yellow turban)
  25. ^ Rizqullah 2005, p. 410.
  26. ^ Abasoomar & Abasoomar 2016.
  27. ^ Ahmad Ath-Thahir, Hamid (2017). Kisah Teladan 20 Shahabat Nabi untuk Anak (Doctor) (in Indonesian). Hikam Pustaka. p. 103. ISBN 9786236843703. Retrieved 29 December 2021.

Bibliography[edit]