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K-P-R is a Semitic root, in Arabic and Hebrew rendered as K-F-R (Arabic: ك-ف-ر; Hebrew: כ-פ-ר). The basic meaning of the root is "to cover", but it is used in the sense "to conceal" and hence "to deny", and its notability derives from its use for religious heresy or apostasy (as it were describing the "concealment" of religious truth) in both Islam and Judaism.


Georges Bohas and Mihai Dat, in a study of triconsonantal Semitic roots, noted a connection of X-p-r, p-r-X and p-X-r roots (where X is another consonant) with meanings like "break off", "part," "cut", "shut off", "remove", "break up", "hide", "expel", suggesting a Proto-Semitic biconsontal root pr meaning "cut, divide."[1] It is first attested in the Akkadian verb kaparu ("wipe, smear"), with D-stem kupparu.[2]




  • Kufr (Arabic: كفر), Kefirah (Hebrew: כְּפִירָה) — negation of the faith; disbelief
  • Kāfir (Arabic: كافر), pl. Kuffār (كفار) and Kāfirīn (كافرين), Kofer (Hebrew: כופר), pl. Kofrim (Hebrew: כופרים) — "coverer" — unbeliever; "a person who hides or covers the truth"
  • Takfīr (Arabic: تكفير) — excommunication
  • Mukaffir (Arabic: مكفر) — the act which precipitates takfīr
  • Kafare (Arabic) — sentence for a crime, for example lashes for adultery, used in religious issues
  • kafr Arabic: كفر) — village
  • Kaffarah (Arabic: كفارة); Kofer (Hebrew: כופר) — compensation for damages in Quranic, Talmudic and Mishnaic tort law.

Sunni Hadith[edit]

كافر (kāfir) will appear on the front of the face of dajjāl (Arabic: دجال).



  1. ^ https://www.hf.uio.no/iln/english/about/organization/text-laboratory/projects/Ethiopia/addis-10.03.14.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-12-20. Retrieved 2019-12-20.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)