List of consulates-general in Jerusalem

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Consulates-General in Jerusalem

The countries which operate these consulates do not regard them as diplomatic missions to Israel or the Palestinian Authority, but as diplomatic missions to Jerusalem.[1] The heads of these missions do not submit letters of credence to the Israeli president, PLO Chairman, or PNA president,[citation needed][clarification needed] Where the countries maintaining these consulates also have embassies to Israel, usually located in Tel Aviv, the Jerusalem-based consul is not subordinate to the ambassador in Tel Aviv (which is the normal diplomatic usage) but reports directly to the country's foreign ministry.[citation needed]

As of 1996, nine countries operated consulates-general in Jerusalem : Belgium, France, Italy, Greece, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, to which is traditionally added the Apostolic Delegation to Jerusalem.[2] In 2019, the US Consulate General was formally merged into the US Embassy, ending the US practice of accrediting separate missions to the Israelis and Palestinians. Most of its former responsibilities were assumed by a new Palestinian Affairs Unit inside the Embassy.[3][4]

History[edit]

This very anomalous diplomatic practice is a result of the unresolved issue of the status of Jerusalem. Under the United Nations Partition Plan of 1947, Jerusalem was to become a corpus separatum, under international control, separate from both the Jewish state and the Arab one whose creation the partition plan envisaged; that would have logically entailed various countries having a separate diplomatic representation in Jerusalem. While the corpus separatum idea was never implemented, the status of Jerusalem remains disputed and unresolved. The international community never recognized the declaration of Jerusalem as Israel's capital in 1949 or the annexation of East Jerusalem to Israel in 1967. Thus the anomalous Jerusalem consulates serve as a convenient way for various countries to have a diplomatic presence in the city without recognizing such Israeli "accomplished facts".

The United States maintained a consulate general in Jerusalem between 1844 and 2019, which later become responsible for conducting relations with Palestinians living in Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. After the United States relocated its Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem in May 2018, the United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that the Consulate General would be merged into the Embassy.[5] In early March 2019, the Consulate General was formally merged into the US Embassy, ending the US practice of accrediting separate missions to the Israelis and Palestinians. Most of its former responsibilities were assumed by a new Palestinian Affairs Unit inside the Embassy.[3][4]

List of missions[edit]

Some of the countries with consulates-general in Jerusalem include the contacts with the Palestinian National Authority and Palestine Liberation Organization[citation needed] in the consulate-general responsibilities. Most of the countries with consulates-general in Jerusalem have separate embassies in Tel Aviv that are accredited to Israel.

Several more countries are represented by Jerusalem-based honorary consuls.[29] Jacobus Kann, Dutch-Jewish banker and a founder of the Zionist Movement, was the Dutch Honorary Consul in Jerusalem between 1923-1927.

Former missions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "History of the Belgian Consulate General in Jerusalem". Consulate General of Belgium in Jerusalem. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
    "According to the 1947 partition plan, provided by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 181, Jerusalem is referred to as a “Corpus Separatum”, a separate enclave under international jurisdiction. Thereby, the jurisdiction of the Consulate General is based on this special status, even if the plan was never implemented...This jurisdiction gives to the Consulate General a special position, shared with the eight other consulates general in Jerusalem which report directly to their respective capitals."
  2. ^ Mochon, Jean-Philippe (1996). "Le Consul Général de France à Jérusalem ; aspects historiques, juridiques et politiques de ses fonctions". Annuaire Français de Droit International (in French). 42 (1): 937, note 10. doi:10.3406/afdi.1996.3421.
  3. ^ a b c Palladino, Robert (4 March 2019). "Merger of U.S. Embassy Jerusalem and U.S. Consulate General Jerusalem". U.S. Embassy in Israel. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  4. ^ a b Estrin, Daniel (1 March 2019). "As U.S. Jerusalem Consulate Shuts, Pro-Israel Envoy Takes On Palestinian Relations". National Public Radio. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  5. ^ Pompeo, Mike. "On the Merging of U.S. Embassy Jerusalem and U.S. Consulate General Jerusalem". U.S. Consulate General in Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 11 February 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  6. ^ "Consulate General of Belgium in Jerusalem". 23 March 2016. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  7. ^ "Palestinian territories". Archived from the original on 2010-12-26. Retrieved 2011-01-29.: "Belgian representation, ..., Location of the attaché: Jerusalem"
  8. ^ "Belgian consulate jerusalem - Google Search".
  9. ^ Republique Francaise. "Consulat Général de France à Jérusalem, Histoire". Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2011-01-29.: "L’autonomie du Consulat général a également pour conséquence de luidonner un rôle inhabituel de représentation politique auprès des autorités palestiniennes. Avant même l’établissement de l’Autorité Palestinienne en 1994, le Consulat général menait, dans les Territoires occupés, une politique de coopération ..."
  10. ^ "Home". jerusalem.consulfrance.org.
  11. ^ "Consulate General of Greece in Jerusalem". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2017-12-07.: "Consulate General in Jerusalem"
  12. ^ "Israel - Contact details for Greek Missions". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  13. ^ 1948: Established as Apostolic Delegation of Jerusalem and Palestine
  14. ^ http://catholicchurch-holyland.com/?p=3203
  15. ^ "Consulate General of Italy in Jerusalem". esteri.it. Retrieved 2011-01-29.: "Consulate General of Italy (West Jerusalem) ... Consulate General of Italy (East Jerusalem)"
  16. ^ "Bilateral relations with the Countries of the Near East: Palestinian National Authority". esteri.it. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
  17. ^ "Consolato Generale - Gerusalemme".
  18. ^ "Recomendaciones de viaje - TERRITORIOS PALESTINOS". maec.es. Archived from the original on 2010-11-04. Retrieved 2011-01-29.: "Representación de España - CONSULADO GENERAL EN JERUSALÉN"
  19. ^ "Localización y contacto".
  20. ^ "About the Consulate General". swedenabroad.com. Archived from the original on 2010-12-31. Retrieved 2011-01-29.: "The Consulate General also follows and reports about the Israeli-Palestinian peace process through contacts with the Palestinian Authority."
  21. ^ "Consulate General of Sweden | SwedenAbroad". www.swedenabroad.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-11.
  22. ^ "Consulate General of Turkey, Jerusalem, Palestine". mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 2011-01-29.: "Today, the jurisdiction of the Consulate General covers West Bank and Gaza Strip governed by the Palestinian National Authority. The city of Jerusalem with its surrounding areas as defined by the special status (corpus separatum) in the United Nations General Assembly Resolution No.181 in 1947, is also covered by the Consulate General."
  23. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Consulate General in Jerusalem".
  24. ^ UK Foreign & Commonwealth office. "Jerusalem, British Consulate-General". fco.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
  25. ^ British Consulate-General Jerusalem. "UK in Jerusalem, About us". fco.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-01-29.: "Other locations - Find more information about other offices for the British Consulate in Palestinian Territories - Gaza"
  26. ^ British Consulate-General Jerusalem. "UK in Jerusalem, Other locations". fco.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-01-29.: "The British Information & Services Office (BISO) in Gaza, is affiliated with the British Consulate General in Jerusalem."
  27. ^ UK Foreign & Commonwealth office. "Occupied Palestine Territories, Gaza, British Information and Services Office". fco.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
  28. ^ British Consulate-General Jerusalem
  29. ^ EmbassyPages.com: Embassies & Consulates in Jerusalem