Maronites

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Maronites
الموارنة
ܡܖ̈ܘܢܝܐ
Total population
c. 7–12 million[1][2][3][4][5][6]
Regions with significant populations
 Lebanon 1.4 million (2006)[7]
 Brazil3–4 million (incl. ancestry)[8]
 United States1.2 million (incl. ancestry)[8]
 Argentina750,000[9]
 Mexico167,190[9]
 Australia161,370[9]
 Canada94,300[9]
 Syria50,000–60,000[9]
 France51,520[9]
 Venezuela25,000[10]
 South Africa20,000[11]
 Cyprus13,170[9]
 Israel10,000[9]
 Egypt6,350[nb 1][9]
 Nigeria5,850[12]
 Germany5,400[10]
 UK5,300[10]
 Belgium3,400[10]
 Côte d'Ivoire2,250–3,000[12]
 Italy2,500[10]
 Sweden2,470[10]
  Switzerland2,000[10]
 Jordan1,000–1,500[9]
Jerusalem and  Palestine504[9]
Languages
Lebanese Aramaic (Historical and native)[16][17]
Classical Syriac (Liturgical)[18][19]
Religion
Maronite Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
Other Lebanese Christians[20]

Maronites (Arabic: الموارنة, romanizedAl-Mawārinah; Syriac: ܡܖ̈ܘܢܝܐ, romanizedMarunoye) are a Syriac Christian ethnoreligious group[21] native to the Eastern Mediterranean and Levant region of West Asia, whose members traditionally belong to the Maronite Church, with the largest concentration long residing near Mount Lebanon in modern Lebanon.[22] The Maronite Church is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the pope and the rest of the Catholic Church.[23][24]

The Maronites derive their name from Saint Maron, a Syriac Christian whose followers migrated to the area of Mount Lebanon from their previous place of residence around the area of Antioch, and established the nucleus of the Antiochene Syriac Maronite Church.[25]

Christianity in Lebanon has a long and continuous history. Biblical scriptures[specify] state that Peter and Paul evangelized the Phoenicians, whom they affiliated to the ancient patriarchate of Antioch. The spread of Christianity in Lebanon was very slow where paganism persisted, especially in the mountaintop strongholds of Mount Lebanon. During the 5th century AD, Saint Maron sent Abraham of Cyrrhus, often referred to as the Apostle of Lebanon, to convert the still significant pagan population of Lebanon to Christianity. The area's inhabitants renamed the Adonis River the Abraham River after Saint Abraham preached there.[26][27]

The early Maronites were Hellenized Semites, natives of Byzantine Syria who spoke Greek and Syriac,[28] yet identified with the Greek-speaking populace of Constantinople and Antioch.[29] They were able to maintain an independent status in Mount Lebanon and its coastline after the Muslim conquest of the Levant, keeping their Christian religion, and even their distinct Lebanese Aramaic[30] as late as the 19th century.[25] Some Maronites wish to identify as Arab Christians.[31] Some Maronites argue that they are of Mardaite ancestry, and other historians, such as Clement Joseph David, Syriac Catholic archbishop of Damascus, reject this.[32][33]

Mass emigration to the Americas at the outset of the 20th century, famine during World War I that killed an estimated one third to one half of the population, the 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war and the Lebanese Civil War between 1975 and 1990 greatly decreased their numbers in the Levant; however Maronites today form more than one quarter of the total population of modern-day Lebanon. Though concentrated in Lebanon, Maronites also show presence in the neighboring Levant, as well as a significant part in the Lebanese diaspora in the Americas, Europe, Australia, and Africa.

The Antiochene Syriac Maronite Church, under the patriarch of Antioch, has branches in nearly all countries where Maronite Christian communities live, in both the Levant and the Lebanese diaspora.

The Maronites and the Druze founded modern Lebanon in Ottoman Lebanon in the early 18th century, through the ruling and social system known as the "Maronite-Druze dualism" in the Ottoman Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate.[34] All Lebanese presidents, with the exception of Charles Debbas and Petro Trad, have been Maronites as part of a continued tradition of the National Pact, by which the prime minister has historically been a Sunni Muslim and the speaker of the National Assembly has historically been a Shi'ite.

Etymology[edit]

Maronites derive their name from Maron, a 4th-century Syriac Christian saint venerated by multiple Christian traditions. He is often mistaken with John Maron, the first Maronite Patriarch, who ruled 685-707.[35][36]

History[edit]

Maronite villagers building a church in the region of Mount Lebanon, 1920s.
Our Lady of Lebanon Cathedral Brooklyn in New York City.
An estimate of the distribution of Lebanon's main religious groups, 1991, based on a map by GlobalSecurity.org
Lebanon religious groups distribution.

The cultural and linguistic heritage of the Lebanese people is a blend of both indigenous Phoenician elements and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years. In a 2013 interview, Pierre Zalloua, a Lebanese biologist who took part in the National Geographic Society's Genographic Project, pointed out that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions: "Lebanon already had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, and religions came as layers of paint on top. There is no distinct pattern that shows that one community carries significantly more Phoenician than another."[37]

Although Christianity existed in Roman Phoenice since the time of the Apostles, Christians were a minority among the majority pagans by the time Emperor Theodosius I issued The Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD. The coastal cities of Tyre and Sidon remained prosperous during Roman rule, but Phoenicia had ceased to be the maritime empire it once was centuries ago and the north of Berytus (Beirut) and the mountains of Lebanon concentrated a big part of the intellectual and religious activities. Very few Roman temples in Phoenicia were built in the coastal cities, hence the reason for the reign of paganism in the interior of the land.[38]

The Maronite movement reached Lebanon when in 402 AD Saint Maron's first disciple, Abraham of Cyrrhus, who was called the Apostle of Lebanon, realized that there were many non-Christians in Lebanon and so he set out to convert the Phoenician inhabitants of the coastal lines and mountains of Lebanon, introducing them to the way of Saint Maron.[39] Many Phoenician pagans became Maronite Christians.[40]

In 451 AD, the Maronites followed the Council of Chalcedon, rejecting both monophysitism and miaphysitisim in favor of maintaining full communion with the then united Catholic Church. In 517 AD, a Chalcedonian conflict resulted in the massacre of 350 Maronite monks. Some sources detail the massacre was exacted under the orders of Monophysite Emperor Anastasius I, while others assign the responsibility to the Miaphysite Jacobite Syriacs.[35][41][42]

Escaping persecution following the Muslim conquest of the Levant in 637 AD, the Maronites living in the low lands and coastal cities confined themselves to the Mount Lebanon and to the coastal cities of the Phoenician coast which did not particularly interest the Arabs; the area consisting of those regions extending from Sidon in the South and up to Batroun and the south of Tripoli in the north.[43][44] The Arab conquerors settled in various cities of the Phoenician coast to reduce Byzantine interference even though they were not interested in maritime trade. Since the mountains offered no attraction to them, the Maronites continued to find refuge from colonial empires in the Mountains of Lebanon, especially Qadisha Valley.[43]

The Maronites raided the newly Arab towns after the conquest of 637 AD and were later joined by the Mardaites in repelling the Arab army. The Mardaites were mountaineers from the Taurus that Emperor Constantine IV recruited to infiltrate Lebanon and join the Maronites to carry attacks against the Arab invaders.[45] The resistance movement became known as "Marada," deriving etymologically from Syriac-Aramaic "Marad" ("ܡܰܪܶܕ") meaning to rebel, fortify or resist.

In 685 AD, the Maronites appointed a Patriarch for themselves, St. John Maron, who became the first Patriarch of the Maronite Church. The appointing of a Patriarch made the Byzantine Emperor furious, which led to the persecution of the Maronites by the Byzantines.

In 694 AD, Emperor Justinian II sent an army to attack the Maronites, destroying their monastery in the Orontes valley and killing 500 monks. The Maronites followed up by leading their army against the Byzantines at Amioun and defeated the Byzantine army in a crushing victory that cost Constantinople two of its best generals.[45] Following the Byzantine persecutions in the Orontes valley, many Aramean Maronite monks left their lands in the Orontes valley and joined the Phoenician Maronites in the mountains of Lebanon.[46] The Maronite Church began to grow then in the valleys of Lebanon.[40]

The Maronites managed then to become "civilly semiautonomous" where they settled[35][47][48] and kept speaking Lebanese Aramaic[49] in daily life and Classical Syriac for their liturgy. The Christians that chose to remain in the newly Arab-controlled areas and inhabited by the Arab invaders gradually became a minority and many of those converted to Islam in order to escape taxation and to further their own political and professional advancement.[50]

For the next 300 years, the Maronites raided and retreated within the region keeping their Christian faith.[45] In 936, the monastery of Beth Moroon (funded by the Byzantine emperor Marcian in Saint Maroun's honour[51]) and a few other monasteries were completely destroyed by the Arabs who attacked the Maronites on religious grounds. Aside from this they were isolated from most of the world for much of the end of the millennium.[40]

The Maronites welcomed the conquering Christians of the First Crusade in 1096 AD.[52] Around the late 12th century, according to William of Tyre, the Maronites numbered 40,000 people.[53] During the several centuries of separation from the rest of the Christian world, they often claim to have been in full communion with the Catholic Church throughout.

Despite this the majority of the accounts of those interacting with them at the time indicate that they were monothelites; notable figures from the era such as the medieval historian Jacques de Vitry and the chronicler of the Pope, William of Tyre affirming this, the latter of which (William Tyre) recorded both their kindness upon receiving him and the monothelitic views of which they recanted, stating; "The heresy of Maro and his followers is and was that in our Lord Jesus Christ, there exists and did exist from the beginning one will and one energy only, as may be learned from the sixth council, which as is well known, was assembled against them and in which they suffered sentence of condemnation. Now however...they repented all of these heresies and returned to the catholic church".[54][55] The Maronites have also had a presence in Cyprus since the early 9th century and many Maronites went there following the Sultan Saladin's successful Siege of Jerusalem in 1187 AD.[56]

During the papacy of Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585), steps were taken to bring the Maronites still closer to Rome. The Maronite College in Rome (Pontificio Collegio dei Maroniti) being founded by Gregory XIII in 1584.[57] By the 17th century, the Maronites had developed a strong natural liking for Europe – particularly France.[58]

The relationship between the Druze and Christians has been characterized by harmony and peaceful coexistence,[59][60][61][62] with amicable relations between the two groups prevailing throughout history, with the exception of some periods, including 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war.[63][64] In the 19th century, thousands of Maronites were massacred by the Lebanese Druze during the 1860 conflict. According to some estimates about 11,000 Lebanese Christians (including Maronites) were killed; over 4,000 died from hunger and disease as a result of the war.[65]

After the 1860 massacres, many Maronites fled to Egypt. Antonios Bachaalany, a Maronite from Salima (Baabda district) was the first emigrant to the New World, where he reached the United States in 1854 and died there two years later.[66]

Population[edit]

Lebanon[edit]

An estimate of the area distribution of Lebanon's main religious groups.

According to the Maronite church, there were approximately 1,062,000 Maronites in Lebanon in 1994, where they constitute up to 32% of the population.[67] Under the terms of the National Pact agreement between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, the president of the country must be a Maronite Christian.[68]

Syria[edit]

There is also a small Maronite Christian community in Syria. In 2017, the Annuario Pontificio reported that 3,300 people belonged to the Archeparchy of Aleppo, 15,000 in the Archeparchy of Damascus and 45,000 in the Eparchy of Lattaquié).[69] In 2015, the BBC placed the number of Maronites in Syria at between 28,000 and 60,000.[70]

Cyprus[edit]

Maronites first migrated to Cyprus in the 8th century, and there are approximately 5,800 Maronites on the island today, the vast majority in the Republic of Cyprus.[13] The community historically spoke Cypriot Maronite Arabic,[71][72] but today Cypriot Maronites speak the Greek language, with the Cypriot government designating Cypriot Maronite Arabic as a dialect.[13]

Israel and Palestine[edit]

A Maronite community of about 11,000 people lives in Israel.[73] The 2017 Annuario Pontificio reported that 10,000 people belonged to the Maronite Catholic Archeparchy of Haifa and the Holy Land and 504 people belonged to the Exarchate of Jerusalem and Palestine.[69]

Diaspora[edit]

According to various sources the Maronite diaspora is estimated to be somewhere between 7 and 12 million individuals, much larger than the Maronite population living in their historic homelands in Lebanon, Syria, Cyprus, Israel, and Palestine.[2][6] Due to cultural and religious assimilation, especially in the Americas, many Maronites or those of Maronite descent might not identify as Maronite or are unaware of their Maronite heritage.[74][75]

According to the Annuario Pontificio, in 2020 the Eparchy of San Charbel in Buenos Aires, Argentina, had 750,000 members; in 2021 the Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon of São Paulo, Brazil, had 521,000 members; in 2020 the Eparchy of Saint Maron of Sydney, Australia, had 161,370 members; in 2020 the Eparchy of Saint Maron of Montreal, Canada, had 94,300 members; in 2021 the Eparchy of Our Lady of the Martyrs of Lebanon in Mexico had 167,190 members; in 2021 the Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon of Los Angeles in the United States had 47,480 members; in 2020 and the Eparchy of Saint Maron of Brooklyn in the United States had 23,939 members.[9]

According to the Annuario Pontificio, 51,520 people belonged to the Maronite Catholic Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon of Paris in 2021.[9] In Europe, some Belgian Maronites are involved in the trade of diamonds in the diamond district of Antwerp.[76]

According to the Annuario Pontificio, 74,900 belonged to the Apostolic Exarchate of West and Central Africa (Nigeria) in 2020.[9] The Diocese is centered in Ibadan, Nigeria and covers the countries of Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger. Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo.[77]

Role in politics[edit]

Lebanon[edit]

With only two exceptions, all Lebanese presidents have been Maronites as part of a tradition that persists as part of the National Pact, by which the Prime Minister has historically been a Sunni Muslim and the Speaker of the National Assembly has historically been a Shia Muslim.

Israel and Palestine[edit]

People born into Christian families or clans who have either Aramaic or Maronite cultural heritage are considered an ethnicity separate from Israeli Arabs and since 2014 can register themselves as Arameans.[78] The Christians who have applied so far for recognition as Aramean are mostly Galilean Maronites, who trace their culture, ancestry and language to an Aramaic-speaking, pre-Arab population of the Levant.

In addition, some 500 Christian adherents of the Syriac Catholic Church in Israel are expected to apply for the recreated ethnic status, as well as several hundred Aramaic-speaking adherents of the Syriac Orthodox Church.[79] Though supported by Gabriel Naddaf, the move was condemned by the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, which described it as "an attempt to divide the Palestinian minority in Israel".[80]

This recognition comes after about seven years of activity by the Aramean Christian Foundation in Israel, led by IDF Major Shadi Khalloul Risho and the Israeli Christian Recruitment Forum, headed by Father Gabriel Naddaf of the Greek-Orthodox Church and Major Ihab Shlayan.[81] Shadi Khalloul Risho is also a member of the Israeli right-wing Yisrael Beiteinu party, and was placed 15th in the 2015 parliamentary elections in the party's member list; the party however received only 5 seats.

Identity[edit]

The followers of the Maronite Church form a part of the Syriac Christians and belong to the West Syriac Rite. The Maronite Syriac Church of Antioch traces its foundation to Maron, an early 4th-century Syriac monk venerated as a saint.[82][83] Before the conquest by Arabian Muslims reached Lebanon, the Lebanese people, including those who would become Muslim and the majority who would remain Christian, spoke a dialect of Aramaic called Syriac.[84][85][86] Syriac remains the liturgical language of the Maronite Church.[87]

Phoenicianism[edit]

Phoenicianism is an identity on the part of Lebanese Christians that has developed into an integrated ideology led by key thinkers, but there are a few who have stood out more than others: Charles Corm, Michel Chiha, and Said Aql in their promotion of Phoenicianism.[88] In post civil-war Lebanon since the Taif agreement, politically Phoenicianism is restricted to a small group.[88]

Among leaders of the movement, Etienne Saqr, Said Akl, Charles Malik, Camille Chamoun, and Bachir Gemayel have been notable names, some going as far as voicing anti-Arab views. In his book the Israeli writer Mordechai Nisan, who at times met with some of them during the war, quoted Said Akl, a famous Lebanese poet and philosopher, as saying; "I would cut off my right hand, and not associate myself to an Arab."[89] Akl believes in emphasizing the Phoenician legacy of the Lebanese people and has promoted the use of the Lebanese dialect written in a modified Latin alphabet, rather than the Arabic one, although both alphabets have descended from the Phoenician alphabet.[90]

In opposition to such views, Arabism was affirmed at the March 1936 Congress of the Coast and Four Districts, when the Muslim leadership at the conference made the declaration that Lebanon was an Arab country, indistinguishable from its Arab neighbors. In the April 1936 Beirut municipal elections, Christian and Muslim politicians were divided along Phoenician and Arab lines in the matter of whether the Lebanese coast should be claimed by Syria or given to Lebanon, increasing the already mounting tensions between the two communities.[88] Phoenicianism is still disputed by many Arabist scholars who have on occasion tried to convince its adherents to abandon their claims as false, and to embrace and accept the Arab identity instead.[90] This conflict of ideas of identity is believed to be one of the pivotal disputes between the Muslim and Christian populations of Lebanon and what mainly divides the country to the detriment of national unity.[91]

In general it appears that Muslims focus more on the Arab identity of the Lebanese history and culture whereas the Christian communities–especially the Maronites, focus on their history and struggles as an ethnoreligious group as distinct from Arab identity and the Arab world, while also reaffirming the Lebanese identity, as well as refraining from Arab characterization as it would deny them their striving achievement of having fended off the Arabs and Turks physically, culturally, and spiritually since their conception. The Maronite perseverance led to their existence even to today.[92][93]

Support of Lebanese identity[edit]

Lebanese flag

Lebanese Maronites are known to be specifically linked to the root of Lebanese Nationalism and opposition to Pan-Arabism in Lebanon, this being the case during 1958 Lebanon crisis. Muslim Arab nationalists backed by Gamel Abdel Nasser tried to overthrow the then Maronite dominated government in power, due to displeasure at the government's pro-western policies and their lack of commitment and duty to the so-called "Arab brotherhood" by preferring to keep Lebanon away from the Arab League and the political confrontations of the Middle East. A more hard-nosed nationalism among some Maronites leaders, who saw Lebanese nationalism more in terms of its confessional roots and failed to be carried away by Chiha's vision, clung to a more security-minded view of Lebanon. They regarded the national project as mainly a program for the security of Maronites and a bulwark against threats from Muslims and their hinterland.[94]

The right-wing yet secular Guardians of the Cedars, with its exiled Leader and founder Etienne Saqr (also the father of singers Karol Sakr and Pascale Sakr) took no sectarian stance and even had Muslim members who joined in their radical stance against Arabism and Palestinian forces in Lebanon.[89] Saqr summarized his party's view on Arab Identity in their official ideological manifesto by stating

Lebanon will remain, as always, Lebanese without any labels. The French passed through it yet it remained Lebanese. The Ottomans ruled it and it remained Lebanese. The stinky winds of Arabism blow through it, but the wind will wither away and Lebanon will remain Lebanese. I do not know what will become of those wretched people who claim that Lebanon is Arabic when Arabism disappears from the map of the Middle East and a new Middle East would emerge, which is clean from Arabs and Arabism.[95]

On an Al Jazeera special dedicated to the political Christian clans of Lebanon and their struggle for power in the 2009 election entitled, "Lebanon: The Family Business", the issue of identity was brought up on several occasions, by various politicians including Druze leader Walid Jumblatt, who claimed that all Lebanese lack somewhat of a real identity and the country is yet to discover one everybody could agree on. Sami Gemayel, of the Gemayel clan and son of former president Amin Gemayel, stated he did not consider himself an Arab but instead identified himself as a Syriac Christian, going on to explain that to him and many Lebanese the "acceptance" of Lebanon's "Arab identity" according to the Taef Agreement wasn't something that they "accepted" but instead were forced into signing through pressure.

The official declared "Arab Identity" of Lebanon was created in 1990 based on the Taif Agreement, without any free discussion or debate among Lebanese people and while Lebanon was under Syrian custody and in the presence of armed Syrian military inside the Lebanese parliament when votes on constitutional amendments were taking place.[96]

In a speech in 2009 to a crowd of Christian Kataeb supporters Gemayel declared that he felt there was importance in Christians in Lebanon finding an identity and went on to state what he finds identification with as a Lebanese Christian, concluding with a purposeful exclusion of Arabism in the segment. The speech met with applause afterward from the audience;[96]

What we are missing today is an important element of our life and our honor, which is our identity. I will tell you today, that I as a Lebanese citizen, my identity is Maronite, Syriac Christian, and Lebanese (Arabic: مارونية سريانية مسيحية لبنانية mārūniyya, suryāniyya masīḥiyya, lubnāniyya).[96]

Etienne Sakr, of the Guardians of the Cedars Lebanese party, in an interview responded "We are not Arabs" to an interview question about the Guardians of the Cedars' ideology of Lebanon being Lebanese. He continued by talking about how describing Lebanon as being not Arab was a crime in present-day Lebanon, about the Lebanese Civil War, and about Arabism as being a first step towards Islamism, claiming that "the Arabs want to annex Lebanon" and in order to do this "to push the Christians out (of Lebanon)", this being "the plan since 1975", among other issues.[97]

On 16 December 2022, at the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal Residence in Atchaneh, Lebanon, the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch, Ignatius Aphrem II issued a joint statement with the Maronite Patriarch, Bechara Boutros al-Rahi, the Syriac Catholic Patriarch, Ignatius Joseph III Yonan, the Chaldean Patriarch, Louis Raphaël I Sako and the Assyrian Patriarch of the Church of the East, Awa III proclaiming:

We affirm that we are one Syriac people, rooted in the beloved East and we form its essential constituents, despite our number and the variety of our apostolic traditions. Our witness to our Christian faith in general, and to our Syriac identity in particular, is a constant source of concern for us. Therefore, we took the time to deepen our role in the East and to find ways to activate it and strengthen it. We discussed the available means of supporting our people to remain in the homeland which was baptized with the blood of our forefathers and ancestors. In this regard, we have renewed our firm resolve to continue our fatherly ministry to our people in order to help them remain in their countries and to stop the migrations caused by the current conflicts and political, economic, and social difficult conditions that the world is witnessing, and that is significantly affecting in the Middle East. Therefore, we pray for our countries' citizens who are suffering because of these crises that are affecting their daily lives. We assure them to continue our Christian witness and ministry to help all people and preserve their dignities and rights.[98]

Embrace of Arab identity[edit]

During a final session of the Lebanese Parliament, a Marada Maronite MP stated his identity as an Arab: "I, the Maronite Christian Lebanese Arab, grandson of Patriarch Estefan Doueihy, declare my pride to be a part of our people's resistance in the South. Can one renounce what guarantees his rights?"[99]

Maronite Deacon Soubhi Makhoul, administrator for the Maronite Exarchate in Jerusalem, has said "The Maronites are Arabs, we are part of the Arab world. And although it's important to revive our language and maintain our heritage, the church is very outspoken against the campaign of these people."[100]

Aramean identity[edit]

Many Maronites consider themselves the descendants of Arameans who lived in the Levant.[101] Furthermore they identify the founder of the church, Saint Maron as a Syriac-speaking hermit of Aramean origins.[102]

In 2014, Israel recognized the Aramean community within its borders as a national minority, allowing some of the Christians in Israel to be registered as "Aramean",[103] instead of "Arab" or "Unclassified". The Christians, who may apply for recognition as Aramean, are mostly Galilean Maronites, who trace their culture, ancestry and language to Arameans.[104]

Religion[edit]

Maronite division among main Syriac Christian groups.

The Maronites belong to the Maronite Syriac Church of Antioch (a former ancient Greek city now in Hatay Province, Turkey) and are an Eastern Catholic Syriac Church, using the Antiochian Rite, that had returned to its communion with Rome since 1180 A.D., although the official view of the Contemporary Maronite Church is that it had never accepted either the Monophysitic views held by their Syriac neighbours, which were condemned in the Council of Chalcedon, or the failed compromise doctrine of Monothelitism (despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary of the latter claim being found in contemporary and medieval sources, with evidence that they were staunchly Monothelites for several centuries, beginning in the early 7th century after their rejection of the sixth ecumenical council).[105][54] The Maronite Patriarch is traditionally seated in Bkerke north of Beirut.

Names[edit]

Modern Maronites often adopt French or other Western European given names (with biblical origins) for their children, including Michel, Marc, Marie, Georges, Carole, Charles, Antoine, Joseph, Pierre, Christian, Christelle and Rodrigue. Other common names are strictly Christian and are Aramaic, or Arabic, forms of biblical, Hebrew, or Greek Christian names, such as Antun (Anthony or Antonios), Butros (Peter), Boulos (Paul), Semaan or Shamaoun (Simon or Simeon), Jergyes (George), Elie (Ilyas or Elias), Iskander (Alexander), Hannah, Katrina (Catherine) and Beshara (literally Good News in reference to the Gospel). Other common names are Sarkis (Sergius) and Bakhos (Bacchus), while others are common both among Christians and Muslims, such as Youssef (Joseph), Ibrahim (Abraham), and Maryam (Mary).

Some Maronite Christians are named in honour of Maronite saints, including the Aramaic names Maro(u)n (after their patron saint Maron), Nimtullah, Charbel or Sharbel after Saint Charbel Makhluf and Rafqa (Rebecca).

Persecution[edit]

Christian church and Druze khalwa in Shuf. The Druzes and the Maronites in Shuf lived in harmony with the exception of some periods.[106]

Maronites were persecuted historically and continuously during the period of Arab conquests of the Middle East (Mount Lebanon) and under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. The Great Famine of Mount Lebanon, which occurred between 1915 and 1918, was caused by multiple factors; one was the Ottoman policy of acquiring all food products in the region for the Ottoman army and administration, and barring food from being sent to the Maronite Christian population of Mount Lebanon, effectively condemning them to starvation.[107] The death of 200,000 Maronite Christians and other people of Mount Lebanon was mainly due to starvation and disease.[108] It was suggested at the time that the starvation of the Maronites was an Ottoman policy aimed at destroying the Maronites, in keeping with the treatment of Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks.[109]

Maronite Christians felt a sense of alienation, exclusion, and targeting as a result of Pan-Arabism and Islamism in Lebanon.[110][111] Among the historic attacks on the community was the Damour massacre by the PLO.[112][113][114] Until recently, the Cypriot Maronites battled to preserve their ancestral language.[115] The Maronite monks maintain that Lebanon is synonymous with Maronite history and ethos; that its Maronitism antedates the Arab conquest of Lebanon and that Arabism is only a historical accident.[116] The Maronites experienced mass persecution under the Ottoman Turks, who massacred and mistreated Maronites for their faith, disallowing them from owning horses and forcing them to wear only black clothing. The Ottoman Empire's WW1 policies, in combination with the Allied Forces' naval blockade, resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of Maronites of Mount Lebanon, with total fatalities estimated between 100-300 thousand people that died from malnutrition, disease and starvation. The Lebanese Druze also persecuted the Maronites, and massacred in excess of 20,000 of them in the mid-1800s. However, agreements have been held with the Druze. Moreover, the Maronites later emerged as the most dominant group in Lebanon, a status they held until the sectarian conflict that resulted in the Lebanese Civil War.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Numbers were higher before the 1956–1957 exodus and expulsions from Egypt

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dagher, Carole (2000). Bring Down the Walls: Lebanon's Post-War Challenge. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 9. doi:10.1057/9780230109193. ISBN 978-0-312-29336-9. [E]stimates vary between 16 million émigrés of Lebanese descent and 4 million. But they all agree on the fact that Christians amount to between 65 percent and 70 percent, among whom Maronites alone represent roughly 48 percent of this diaspora, and are thus the largest 'Lebanese' community abroad
  2. ^ a b Gemayel, Boutros. "Archbishop of the Maronite Church in Cyprus". maronite-institute.org. The Maronite Research Institute. There are reportedly over seven million Maronites alone living in Brazil, the United States of America, South America, Canada, Africa, Europe and Australia.
  3. ^ Moussa, Gracia (22 September 2014). "Maronites: the face of Christians in the Middle East". geopolitica.info. L’Associazione Geopolitica.info. The number of Maronites abroad is estimated to be 8 million.
  4. ^ "The Maronite Church "A bridge between East and West"". cmc-terrasanta.org. Christian Media Center. 10 June 2016. There are more than 10 million Maronites around the world
  5. ^ Bejjani, Elias (10 February 2008). "St. Maroun & His followers the Maronites". Canadian Lebanese Coordinating Council. Archived from the original on 17 May 2023. Every year, on the ninth of February, more than ten million Maronites from all over the world celebrates St. Maroun's day.
  6. ^ a b Hugi, Jacky (15 March 2013). "Aramaic Language Project in Israel Furthers Recognition of Maronites". al-monitor.com. Al-Monitor, LLC. There are 12 million Maronites in the world today.
  7. ^ Burger, John (10 September 2020). "Christians in Lebanon: A short history of the Maronite Church". Aleteia. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  8. ^ a b Tu, Janet (17 November 2001). "Maronite Mass gets trial run at Shoreline parish". seattletimes.com. The Seattle Times. Today there are about 7 million Maronites worldwide, most of them in Brazil (with 3 million or 4 million) and the United States (with 1.2 million Maronites, and 83 Maronite churches).
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  16. ^ Hitti, Philip (1957). Lebanon in History. India: Macmillan and Co Ltd. p. 336. Being largely mountaineers and still Syriac-speaking the Maronite community was evidently looked upon as a minority ethnic group rather than a separate denomination.
  17. ^ Schulze, Kirsten E; Stokes, Martin; Campell, Colm (1996). Nationalism, Minorities and Diasporas: Identities and Rights in the Middle East. Magee College: Tauris Academic Studies. p. 162. ISBN 9781860640520. This identity was underlined by Christian resistance to adopting Arabic as the spoken language. Originally they had spoken Syriac but increasingly opted to use "Christian" languages such as Latin, Italian, and most importantly, French.
  18. ^ Iskandar, Amine (27 February 2022). "About the origin of the Lebanese language (I)". syriacpress.com. Syriacpress. The Lebanese have never spoken Ktovonoyo, but it was and is the liturgical language of the Syriac Maronite Church. This language was taught in their schools until 1943 and it is the only language they wrote and the one they still sing in the form of hymns. It is the language taught in schools that defines the identity of the people and their land.
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    • Fattouh, Emily Michelle (2018). "Adaptive Leadership and the Maronite Church". M.A. In Leadership Studies: Capstone Project Papers. Digital USD. The continuation of the presence of the Maronite Christian Church in the United States connects people to a larger ethnic community, and most importantly, helps preserve cultural, social, and religious traditions.
    • "Maronites - Minority Rights Group". minorityrights.org. Minority Rights Group International. 2021.
    • "Maronites, Christians of the Middle East". stgeorgesa.org. St. George Maronite Catholic Church. 2021. Maronites started their own churches wherever they settled in the United States, a sign of their attachment to their ethnic and religious identities.
    • Ghosn, Margaret; Engebretson, Kath (2010). "National Identity of a Group of Young Australian Maronite Adults" (PDF). crucibleonline.net. Crucible Journal. Their religious identity was part of an ethnic identification that was rigorously maintained as a result of the turmoil surrounding the history and current status of Maronites in Lebanon.
    • Demosthenous, Areti (2012). "The Maronites of Cyprus: From ethnicism to transnationalism". GAMER. I (1): 61–72. If we take as an example the Maronite community of Cyprus, it is considered as a minority by all international standards and they match perfectly the definition for national and ethnic minorities adopted by the United Nations and the Council of Europe.
    • Mavrides, Mario; Maranda, Michael (1999). "The Maronites of Cyprus: A Community in Crisis". Journal of Business & Society. 12 (1): 78–94. The Maronite ethnic identity is centred on their religion and on a historical sense of being a distinct group.
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