Names and titles of Muhammad
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The names and titles of Muhammad, names and attributes of Muhammad, Names of Muhammad (Arabic: أسماء النبي, romanized: Asmā’u ’n-Nabiyy) are the names of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and used by Muslims, where 88 of them are commonly known, but also countless names which are found mainly in the Quran and hadith literature. The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations; prophet, messenger, servant of God (abd).
The name Muhammad (/ - /,) means "praiseworthy" and appears four times in the Quran. Chapter Surah 47 of the Quran is "Muhammad". The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, or, father of.
The Quran also refers to Muhammad as Ahmad, "more praiseworthy" (Arabic: أحمد). The penultimate prophet in Islam, Isa ibn Maryam also refers Muhammad as Ahmad in the Sura As-Saff. Muhammad is also referred to as Hamid, or "Praiser (of Allah)" (Arabic: حامد), and as Mahmud, or "Most Highly Praised" (Arabic: محمود).
Muhammad is often referenced with these titles or epithets:
- Seal of the prophets (Arabic: خاتم النبيين, romanized: Khātam al-Nabiyyīn) 
- The Prophet, (Arabic: أَلْنَّبِيّ, romanized: an-Nabī), also, the Prophet of Prophets.
- Messenger of God, (Arabic: رسول الله, romanized: Rasūl’Allāh)
- The Beloved (Arabic: الحَبِيبُ, romanized: al-Ḥabīb) or The Beloved of God (Arabic: حَبِيبُ اللهِ, romanized: Ḥabīb Allāh)
- The Chosen or The Appointed (Arabic: المُصْطَفَى, romanized: al-Muṣṭafā)
- The Genuine, The Trustworthy, or The Faithful (Arabic: الأَمِينُ, romanized: al-Amīn)
- The Honest, The Righteous, or The Truthful (Arabic: الصِّدِّيقُ, romanized: as-Ṣiddīq)
- Kind, Compassionate, or Affectionate (Arabic: رَءُوف, romanized: Raʾūf)
- Model (of Conduct, Merit, or Virtue) (Arabic: أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَة, romanized: Uswatun Ḥasanah)
- The Perfect (Arabic: أَلْكَامِل, romanized: al-Kāmil)
- The Best of Mankind (Arabic: خَيْرُ البَشَرِ, romanized: Khayr al-Bashar)
- Mercy to the Worlds (Arabic: الرَّحْمَةُ لِلْعَالَمِينَ, romanized: ar-Raḥmah lil-ʿĀlamīn)
- al-Mubashir, "The Bearer of Good Tidings"
- an-Nadhir, "The Warner"
- al-Mudhakkir, "The Reminder"
- ad-Dā‘ī, "The One Who Calls (unto God)"
- al-Bashir, "The Announcer"
- an-Nūr, "The Light Personified"
- al-Misbah, "The Lamp/ Lantern" (lit. "Bringer of Light – Dawn") – i.e.: as-Siraaj al-Muneer, "The Lamp of Illuminated, Ever-glowing, Ever-Enlightening, Incandescent"
- as-Siraaj, "The Lamp/ Lantern" – i.e.: as-Siraaj al-Muneer, "The Lamp of Illuminated, Ever-glowing, Ever-Enlightening, Incandescent"
- Ni‘mat-Ullah, "The Divine Favour"
- al-Ummiyy, "The Unlettered and Illiterate", i.e.: An-Nabiyyu l-Ummiyy, "The Prophet who is Unlettered and Illiterate"
- al-'Aqib, "The Last (Prophet)"
- al-Mutawakkil, "The One who Puts his Trust (in God)"
- al-Mahi, "The Remover (of Disbelief)"
- al-Hanif, "The One of Primordial Religion"
- Nâbîyyu at-Tawbah, "The Prophet of Penitence"
- al-Mu`azzaz, "The Strengthened One, the One Made Invulnerable"
- al-Muwaqqar, "Held in Awe"
- al-Fatih, "The Opener"
- al-Hashir, "The Gatherer (First to be Resurrected) on the Day of Judgement"[Quran 2:119]
- al-Shafî`, "The Intercessor"
- Kareem, Noble and Generous (Arabic: كريمٍ),
- Shahid/Shahed (Arabic: شَاهِدًا), A Witness
- al-Mushaffa`, The One Whose Intercession Shall be Granted
- al-Mujtaba, The Chosen (Arabic: اَلْـمُـجْـتَـبَى)
- ‘Abd’Allah, Servant of Allah
- Akhir, 'The Final, that is, the final prohet, "Last Messenger"
Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped (Al-Muzzammil) in Quran 73:1 and the shrouded (al-muddaththir) in Quran 74:1.
He is also known by these epithets:
- Ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, descendant of Abd al-Muttalib
- Abu ’l-Qasim (Arabic: أَبـو الـقَـاسـم, father of Qasim ibn Muhammad), a son by his first wife Khadija bint Khuwaylid.
- Abu ‘Abd’Ullah, father of Abdullah ibn Muhammad, also a son by Khadija.
- Abu Ibrahim, father of Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, a son by Maria al-Qibtiyya.
- Abu ’t-Tahir, father of the Pure
- Abu ’t-Tayyib, father of the Pleasant
In Iran, Central Asia and South Asia, Turkey and the Balkans, he is often called Hadrat (His Presence or His Holiness) Arabic: حضرت, romanized: ḥadhrat) or Messenger (Persian: پيغمبر, romanized: peygamber).
Islamic scholars strongly emphasize the need for Muslims to follow the name of Muhammad, whether spoken or written, with the honorific phrase "peace be upon him", often abbreviated to PBUH or SAW, from Arabic: صلى الله عليه وسلم, romanized: sallallahu alayhe wasallam or written ﷺ.
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- Yeniterzi, Emine. "The Names and Attributes of Prophet Muhammad in Divine Literature". Last Prophet. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- Jean-Louis Déclais, Names of the Prophet, Encyclopedia of the Quran
- 3:144. "Muhammad is only a messenger: many Were the messenger that passed away before him."
- 33:40. "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things."
- 47:2. "But those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and believe in the (Revelation) sent down to Muhammad – for it is the Truth from their Lord, – He will remove from them their ills and improve their condition."
- 48:29. "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against disbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other."
- "Quran (Chapter 47)".
- Muhammad Archived 9 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 15 February 2017
- Goitein, S.D. (1967) – A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza, Volume 1 Archived 22 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine p. 357. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-22158-3 Retrieved 17 February 2017
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- 61:6. "And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: "O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah (sent) to you, confirming the Law (which came) before me, and giving Glad Tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad."".
- Ernst (2004), p. 80
- Quran 22:75
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:237
- Quran 33:22
- Quran 9:128
- Quran 68:4
- "Ibn al-'Arabi, Muhyi al-Din (1164–1240)". Muslim Philosophy. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 4. The 'perfect man' and the Muhammadan reality
- Quran 21:107
- Quran 11:2
- Quran 88:21
- Quran 12:108
- Quran 2:119
- Quran 5:15
- Quran 33:46
- Quran 16:83
- Quran 7:157–158
- Sahih Muslim, 4:1859
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:56:732
- Quran 9:129
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:56:732
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 9:93:601
- Quran 3:159Quran 4:64Quran 60:12
- Quran 69:40
- Quran 33:45
- Quran 19:87Quran 20:109
- "Mujtaba, A Quranic Name for Boys". quranicnames.com. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
- Quran 25:1
- Muhammad and Christ, Maulana Muhammad Ali – 2011
- Muhammad The Messenger of God: M. Fethullah Gülen – 2014
- Uri Rubin, Muhammad, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
- Schimmel, Annemarie (1990). Islamic Names: An Introduction (Islamic Surveys). Edinburgh University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-85224-563-7.
Chiabotti, Francesco, Names, in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610691776