Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing
|Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing|
|Part of the Second Intifada militancy campaign|
|Date||9 August 2001|
2:00 pm (IDT)
|Target||Sbarro pizza restaurant|
|Deaths||15 civilians (+1 bomber)|
The Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing, also called the Sbarro massacre, was a Palestinian terrorist attack on a pizzeria in downtown Jerusalem, on 9 August 2001, in which 15 civilians were killed, including 7 children and a pregnant woman, and 130 wounded.
At the time of the bombing, the Jerusalem branch of the Sbarro pizza restaurant chain was located at the corner of King George Street and Jaffa Road in Jerusalem, one of the busiest pedestrian crossings in the region. Although not required to do so, owner Noam Amar added extra support columns on the advice of city inspectors.
Ahlam Tamimi, who was charged as an accomplice, scouted for a target before leading Izz al-Din Shuheil al-Masri, the suicide bomber, to the Sbarro restaurant. They arrived just before 2:00 pm, when the restaurant was filled with customers, "dozens of women, children and babies", and pedestrian traffic outside was at its peak. Tamimi departed before Al-Masri, thought to be carrying a rigged guitar case or wearing an explosive belt weighing 5 to 10 kilograms, containing explosives, nails, nuts and bolts, detonated his bomb.
The dead included 13 Israelis, one pregnant American, and one Brazilian, all of them civilians. Additionally, 130 were injured. One victim, Chana Nachenberg, remains hospitalized, in a permanent vegetative state, more than twenty years after the attack. She was 31 years old at the time of the bombing. Her daughter, who was 2 years old at the time, was one of the few in the restaurant who came through the disaster unscathed.
Yocheved Shoshan, age 10, was killed, and her 15-year-old sister Miriam was severely injured with 60 nails lodged in her body, a hole in her right thigh, third degree burns on 40 percent of her body, and a ruptured spleen. According to the testimony of their mother, Esther Shoshan:
I was upstairs with one of my daughters. We had wanted to sit downstairs where it's roomy, near the windows, but it was too crowded. Two of my daughters had gone to park the car. Two others, Miriam and Yocheved, went down to the lower level to get our food.
Then there was an enormous blast. The place went dark. People started screaming: 'Pigua! Pigua!' [Terror attack! Terror attack!] But at first I didn't believe it. People shouted: 'Get out! There may be another blast.' Finally, we ran downstairs. There was a terrible stench. I saw body parts everywhere – here a limb, there a head. The bodies were bloated. There was water everywhere; I have no idea where it came from. I searched for my children.
My two daughters who had gone to the car-park arrived seconds later. The older one came inside and found Miriam and Yocheved. They were on fire. She managed to put out the flames but was then rushed away by rescue workers. I couldn't leave. I was torn. The rescue workers kept dragging me to the door. I'd start to go, then run back screaming, 'My girls, my girls!' I wanted to help them.
Mordechai and Tzira Schijveschuurder, both children of Holocaust survivors, were killed along with three of their children. Two other daughters, Leah, 11, and Chaya, 8, were critically injured. The family was Dutch. During the Holocaust, Tzira's parents were in Bergen Belsen and Theresienstadt. Mordechai's parents successfully hid from the Nazis.
According to the testimony of Chaya Schijveschuurder:
The last time I saw my brother Avraham Yitzhak, he was lying on a stretcher in an ambulance. He had a bandage on his face. He was four years old. Now our parents are not alive either. But soon the Messiah will come and all the people that have died, and all the people killed in wars and terror attacks, will come back to life.
We were hungry, so Mommy said we could go to a restaurant to eat. In that restaurant, you have to pay first and only afterwards you sit down to eat. When we were at the cash register, we suddenly heard an explosion. I ran out as fast as I could. I didn't look at anything. I just ran out. A medic, I don't know his name, took me to an ambulance and that is where I saw Avraham Yitzhak for the last time.
I said to him, 'Avraham Yitzhak.' But he didn't say anything. After that they took me on a stretcher to the hospital, and I had to have an operation to remove the screws that entered my liver and leg. I saw a sign on the door that said 'Operating Room' and started to cry. After that I didn't see anything.
In my house, they are sitting 'shiva' right now. My brothers came here with their torn shirts. I asked them 'Why are your shirts torn?' but they didn't want to tell me that my parents were dead. My brothers were not with us in the restaurant. They found me first. After that, they found out that my sister and my brother were dead.
My little sister was always happy. I remember her so well. She used to laugh all day long. On the day of the terror attack she was very happy. Daddy went to the bank, and we went into the restaurant and asked if we could order first and pay later, after Daddy came. They said no – so we went to wait for him at the bank. When he came out, we returned to the restaurant, and that's when the explosion occurred. I loved that restaurant very much. It had very, very good pizza.
Chaviv Avrahami, who saw the scene of the attack after the bombing, recounted: "I heard a tremendous explosion, and I was thrown up a metre into the air. I knew immediately that it was a bomb attack, and a catastrophic one. There were people – babies – thrown through the window and covered with blood. The whole street was covered with blood and bodies: the dead and the dying." Naor Shara, a soldier who witnessed the attack, said, "The worst thing I saw, which I think will haunt me all my life, is a baby that was sitting in a stroller outside a shop and was dead. After the explosion, the baby's mother came out of the store and started screaming hysterically."
Both Hamas and the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine initially claimed responsibility, with Hamas saying that the attack was in response to Israel's assassination ten days earlier in Nablus of the two leading Hamas commanders Jamal Mansour and Omar Mansour as well as six civilians including two children.
The suicide bomber who died in the course of carrying out the attack was later identified to be Izz al-Din Shuheil al-Masri (Arabic: عز الدين شهيل المصري) from the Palestinian West Bank town of Aqabah. Izz al-Masri was 22 at the time and the son of a successful restaurant owner, and from an affluent land-owning family.
The person who constructed the explosives was a man named as Abdallah Barghouti. For his part in the bombing and a string of other attacks, in which 67 civilians were killed and 500 injured, he was handed down 67 life sentences on 30 November 2004.
Izz al-Masri was escorted to the restaurant by Ahlam Tamimi, a 20-year-old female university student and part-time journalist, who had disguised herself as a Jewish tourist for the occasion. She later commented that she was not sorry for what she had done and does not recognize Israel's existence. "Despite the fact that I'm sentenced to 16 life sentences I know that we will become free from Israeli occupation and then I will also be free from the prison," she said. When she first learned from a journalist who was interviewing her in jail that she had murdered eight children, not just three as she had initially believed, she just smiled broadly and continued with the interview.
Afterwards, when I took the bus, the Palestinians around Damascus Gate [in Jerusalem] were all smiling. You could sense that everybody was happy. When I got on the bus, nobody knew that it was me who had led [the suicide bomber to the target] ... I was feeling quite strange, because I had left [the bomber] 'Izz Al-Din behind, but inside the bus, they were all congratulating one another. They didn't even know one another, yet they were exchanging greetings ... While I was sitting on the bus, the driver turned on the radio. But first, let me tell you about the gradual rise in the number of casualties. While I was on the bus and everybody was congratulating one another ...
After hearing an initial report that "three people were killed" in the bombing, Tamimi stated:
I admit that I was a bit disappointed, because I had hoped for a larger toll. Yet when they said "three dead," I said: 'Allah be praised' ... Two minutes later, they said on the radio that the number had increased to five. I wanted to hide my smile, but I just couldn't. Allah be praised, it was great. As the number of dead kept increasing, the passengers were applauding.
In response to the attack, Israel shut down the unofficial Palestinian "foreign office" in Jerusalem, at the Orient House. Foreign Minister Peres said that "If the Palestinian Authority had acted with the necessary determination and carried out preventive detentions of Hamas terrorists and their operators, the murders today in Jerusalem would have been prevented."
Within the Palestinian Territories, Hamas claimed responsibility for the bombing which it praised as a "retaliation of the Palestinian people" against Israel. President of the Palestine Liberation Organization and of the Palestinian Authority Yasser Arafat condemned the "bombing attack ... in West Jerusalem and I denounce all acts that harm civilians." but the Palestinian Authority blamed Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon for provoking the attack and stated it held him "fully responsible for what happened. The assassinations, the killings and the terrorism that he has practised and escalated in recent weeks led to this result."
U.S. President George W. Bush expressed condolences and stated, "I deplore and strongly condemn the terrorist bombing in downtown Jerusalem today. My heartfelt sympathies and those of the American people are with the victims of this terrible tragedy and their families." Bush demanded Arafat to "condemn this horrific terrorist attack, act now to arrest and bring to justice those responsible, and take immediate, sustained action to prevent future terrorist attacks."
According to the U.N. press release, "UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned today's terror attack by a suicide bomber in Jerusalem. He deplored all acts of terror and is deeply disturbed by the terrible loss of life." According to the Belgian EU Presidency, "The Presidency of the European Union unreservedly condemns the bombing of a Jerusalem shopping centre today, 9 August. It abhors this cowardly act which mainly claimed the lives of innocent civilians."
After the suicide bombing, Palestinian university students at the An-Najah University in the West Bank city of Nablus created an exhibition celebrating the first anniversary of the Second Intifada. The exhibit's main attraction was a room-sized re-enactment of the bombing at Sbarro. The installation featured broken furniture splattered with fake blood and human body parts. The entrance to the exhibition was illustrated with a mural depicting the bombing. The exhibit was later shut down by Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.
Response and activism of victims' families
In 2001, the family of Malka Chana (Malki) Roth, a 15-year-old victim of the attack, founded The Malki Foundation, a charity organization that supports families of children with disabilities. All services and equipment are provided at no cost to the families. People of all religions and backgrounds are eligible for assistance. The organization is a memorial to Malka Roth's life. Later, Malka's parents, Arnold and Frimet Roth, participated in a mass protest in Europe alongside the families of other terror victims in support of the legality the Israeli West Bank barrier. Arnold remarked, "Do I feel bad about the destruction the fence is causing? I do. But do not compare the murder of my daughter to the inability of a Palestinian to get to work by 9:00 A.M."
The husband of Shoshana Greenbaum, the pregnant woman killed in the attack, responded by organizing a group called "Partners in Kindness" and writing a column called "A Daily Dose of Kindness". He explained that he made these efforts in attempt to "improve the world".
2011 prisoner exchange
During the 2011 Gilad Shalit prisoner exchange, relatives of the victims of the bombing vehemently protested the release of Ahlam Tamimi, who chose the Sbarro restaurant as a target and drove the bomber to the location.
Arnold and Frimet Roth circulated a petition against Tamimi's inclusion in the Gilad Shalit prisoner exchange and also wrote a letter to Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu urging him to exclude her from the list. Frimet Roth said in October, "We feel desperate. We beg Mr. Netanyahu to grant us a few minutes of his time and hear us out. In any sane country with a fair judicial system, even paroled murderers are not released without granting the victims' loved ones a chance to address the parole board."
Chaya Schijveschuurder, whose parents and three siblings were killed in the attack, protested with a sign that read, "My parents' blood screams from the grave!" Her brother, Shvuel, vandalized the Yitzhak Rabin memorial and commented, "My opinions are all right compared to [Chaya's] and compared to how she feels about the deal. She was badly wounded in the [Sbarro] attack, she feels that releasing the terrorist is as if she were raped and then the rapist went and murdered her parents and is now being released. For her it's like being raped twice."
- List of massacres committed during the Al-Aqsa Intifada
- List of Hamas suicide attacks
- List of Palestinian suicide attacks
- Palestinian political violence
- Malki Foundation
- Israeli casualties of war
- List of massacres in Israel
- Roth, Frimet (9 August 2010). "Nine years after the Sbarro massacre". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- "Sbarro Massacre". Jewish Press. The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- "The massacre in Jerusalem's Sbarro restaurant". Education.gov.il. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Ben Gedalyahu, Tzvi (12 October 2011). "Mother of Sbarro Victim: This Ongoing War is Killing Us". Israel National News. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Hillel Fendel (31 May 2007). "Inventor of Pal-Kal Sentenced to Four Years". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- Frimet Roth (11 August 2006). "Remembering the Sbarro bombing five years on". Ha'aretz. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- "In One Swift Minute – Chana Nachenberg's Story".
- "'This isn't a funeral. It's a Holocaust'". The Guardian. London. 11 August 2001. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Inigo Gilmore (12 August 2001). "Israel warned Arafat of suicide bomb risk". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- Katz, Samuel M. (2016). The Ghost Warriors: Inside Israel's Undercover War Against Suicide Terrorism. Penguin Books. ISBN 9781592409013.
- The massacre in Jerusalem’s Sbarro restaurant Archived 18 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "'The street was covered with blood and bodies: the dead and the dying'". the Guardian. 10 August 2001. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
- "Suicide bombing at the Sbarro pizzeria in Jerusalem – 9-Aug-2001". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 August 2001. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Jerusalem bombing: A war increasing in cruelty, fuelled by lust for revenge, The Independent, 10 August 2001.
- Who carried out suicide bombing?, The Guardian, 10 August 2001.
- Glickman, Aviad (4 June 2009). "Court denies Sbarro bomber family's damages claim". Ynetnews. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "Abdallah Barghouti sentenced to 67 life sentences". GxMSDev. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Sbarro terrorist 'not sorry', Ynetnews, 27 March 2006
- Regards from Amman: The Tamimi Family and the Good Life by Meir Indor, TheJewishPress.com, 27 June 2012.
- From terrorist to talk-show host: a letter to Netanyahu by Frimet Roth, Times of Israel, 1 April 2012.
- "Israel releases list of Palestinian prisoners to be swapped". CNN. 16 October 2011.
- Released Hamas Terrorist Ahlam Tamimi on Palestinian Public's Delight at Suicide Bombings, MEMRI (transcript), Clip No. 3539, July 12, 2012. video clip with subtitles
- Cashman, Greer Fay (9 September 2001). "'Jerusalem Post' donates NIS100,000 to one Family Fund for terror victims". Jerusalem Post. ProQuest 319330960.
- Nielson, Jacob (16 May 2002). "Sending Flowers to Victims of Terror: One Family and EISF Team up for Seeds of Solidarity". Jewish Advocate.
- Yaacov Lozowick, Right to Exist, 2003, p.20
- "Israel Takes New Actions After Suicide Bomb". ABC News. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
- agencies, Staff and (9 August 2001). "Restaurant bomb kills 18". the Guardian. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
- "Gruesome exhibit marks anniversary of uprising". The Associated Press. 24 September 2001. Retrieved 9 August 2006.
- "An Exhibit on Campus Celebrates Grisly Deed". The New York Times. 25 September 2001. Retrieved 9 August 2006.
- Arafat closes 'suicide bombing' art show, BBC, 26 September 2001.
- Keren Malki website/
- The power of numbers, Frimet Roth, Haaretz
- Giulio Meotti (2010). A New Shoah: The Untold Story of Israel's Victims of Terrorism. ISBN 9781594034770. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
- "Lesson on Faith: Sbarro Bombing and a Book on Kindness". Israel National News. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Family begs for daughter’s killer to be kept in prison by Tovah Lazaroff, Jerusalem Post, 17 October 2011.
- "Mother of Israeli suicide bombing victim: Do not free my daughter's murderer". Ha'aretz. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- "Vandal in Rabin memorial case: Shalit family sold Israel for son". Ha'aretz. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Suicide bombing at the Sbarro pizzeria in Jerusalem – Israeli MFA (with pictures)
- The Malki Foundation. Last accessed 9 August 2006
- Partners In Kindness. Last accessed 9 August 2006
- Gruesome exhibit marks anniversary of uprising. The Associated Press, 24 September 2001. Last accessed 9 August 2006
- Arafat closes 'suicide bombing' art show. BBC News. 26 September 2001. Last accessed 9 August 2006
- Photos of the murdered victims