Sophronius of Jerusalem
|Patriarch of Jerusalem|
Damascus, Byzantine Empire
|Died||11 March 638 (aged 77–78)|
Jerusalem, Rashidun Caliphate
|Venerated in||Eastern Orthodox Church, Roman Catholic Church|
|Feast||11 March [O.S. 24 March (where the Julian calendar is used)]|
|Attributes||Vested as a bishop, with right hand upheld in blessing, holding a Gospel Book or scroll|
Sophronius (Greek: Σωφρόνιος; Arabic: صفرونيوس; c. 560 – March 11, 638), called Sophronius the Sophist, was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death. He is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches. Before rising to the primacy of the see of Jerusalem, he was a monk and theologian who was the chief protagonist for orthodox teaching in the doctrinal controversy on the essential nature of Jesus and his volitional acts.
Sophronius was born in Damascus around 560. He has been claimed to be of Byzantine Greek or Syriac descent.[page needed] A teacher of rhetoric, Sophronius became an ascetic in Egypt about 580 and then entered the monastery of St. Theodosius near Bethlehem. Traveling to monastic centres in Asia Minor, Egypt, and Rome, he accompanied the Byzantine chronicler St. John Moschus, who dedicated to him his celebrated tract on the religious life, Spiritual Meadow (and whose feast day in the Byzantine Rite, 11 March [O.S. 24 March], is shared with Sophronius'). On the death of Moschus in Rome in 619, Sophronius accompanied the body back to Jerusalem for monastic burial. He traveled to Alexandria, Egypt, and to Constantinople in the year 633 to persuade the respective patriarchs to renounce Monoenergism, a heterodox teaching that espoused a single, divine energy in Christ to the exclusion of a human capacity for choice. Except for his synodal letter for the Third Council of Constantinople, Sophronius' extensive writings on this question are all lost.
Although unsuccessful in his mission to condemn Monoenergism, Sophronius was elected patriarch of Jerusalem in 634. Soon after his enthronement he forwarded his noted synodical letter to Pope Honorius I and to the Eastern patriarchs, explaining the orthodox belief in the two natures, human and divine, of Christ, as opposed to Monoenergism, which he viewed as a subtle form of heretical Monophysitism (which posited a single divine nature for Christ). Moreover, he composed a Florilegium (“Anthology”) of some 600 texts from the Early Church Fathers in favour of the Christian tenet of Dyothelitism (positing both human and divine wills in Christ). This document also is lost.
In his Christmas sermon of 634, Sophronius was more concerned with keeping the clergy in line with the Chalcedonian view of God, giving only the most conventional of warnings of the Saracen advance on Palestine, commenting that the Saracens already controlled Bethlehem. Sophronius, who viewed the Saracen control of Palestine as "unwitting representatives of God's inevitable chastisement of weak and wavering Christians", died soon after the fall of Jerusalem to the caliph Umar I in 637, but not before he had negotiated the recognition of civil and religious liberty for Christians in exchange for tribute - an agreement known as Umari Treaty. The caliph himself came to Jerusalem, and met with the patriarch at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Sophronius invited Umar to pray there, but Umar declined, fearing to endanger the Church's status as a Christian temple.
Beside polemics, Sophronius' writings included an encomium on the Alexandrian martyrs Cyrus and John in gratitude for an extraordinary cure of his failing vision. He also wrote 23 Anacreontic (classical metre) poems on such themes as the Muslim siege of Jerusalem and on various liturgical celebrations. His Anacreontica 19 and 20 seem to be an expression of the longing desire he had of the Holy City, possibly when he was absent from Jerusalem during one of his many journeys. The order of the two poems has to be inverted to establish a correct sequence of the diverse subjects. Arranged in this way, the two poems describe a complete circuit throughout the most important sanctuaries of Jerusalem at the end of the 6th century, described as the golden age of Christianity in the Holy Land. Themes of Anacreonticon 20 include the gates of Jerusalem (or Solyma), the Anastasis, the Rock of the Cross, the Constantinian Basilica, Mount Sion, the Praetorium, St. Mary at the Probatica, and Gethsemane. The Mount of Olives, Bethany, and Bethlehem come next in Anacreonticon 19. Sophronius also wrote down the Life of St. Mary of Egypt, which is read on the fifth Thursday of Lent in the Byzantine Rite.
According to the Muslim treaty Pact of Omar, caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab came to Jerusalem in 637 after the conquest of Jerusalem and toured the city with Sophronius who greeted him on a lectica while Omar lead a camille with his servant riding it. During the negotiation treaty for the surrender of Jerusalem, Omar proposed for all Christian businesses, assets and Churches to be retained and the Arab army would not plunder the city, which was not the normal custom at the time. Omar also requested for the Jewish population of Jerusalem to be reinstated, having previously been purged by the Roman Christian army, by finding 80 Jewish families and resettling them in the city. During the tour of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the time for prayer came, and despite Sophronius's offer to Omar to pray inside the Church, Omar chose to pray outside. According to Islamic tradition, the caliph's reason for declining to pray there was because in the future Muslims might say that great Omar prayed here resulting in them wanting to build a mosque there. So appreciating the caliph's intelligence he gave the keys of the church to him. Unable to refuse it the caliph gave it to a family of Muslims from Medina and asked them to open the church and close it; the keys of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre still remain with the Muslim family.
- John F. Matthews, "Sophronius, ‘the Sophist’," in Simon Hornblower, Antony Spawforth and Esther Eidinow (eds.), The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 4th ed. (Oxford University Press, 2012). ISBN 9780191735257
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- Hugh Kennedy. The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In. Da Capo Press, Philadelphia, PA: 2007. Page 90. Accessed August 8, 2016.
- Donald E. Wagner. Dying in the Land of Promise: Palestine and Palestinian Christianity from Pentecost to 2000
- Duffy, J.M., 2011. The Homilies of Sophronius of Jerusalem: Issues of Prose Rhythm, Manuscript Evidence and Emendation. Ars Edendi: Lecture Series, 3, p.49.
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- Averil Cameron and Lawrence Conrad
- Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. 1 The First Crusade (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 3-4.
- (es) Arfuch, Diego E., « Los poemas anacreónticos para la anunciación y la natividad de San Sofronio de Jerusalén : aspectos literarios y teológicos. », Studia monastica, année: 2014, volume: 56, numéro: 2, p. 221-255 (ISSN 0039-3258)
-  "Greek Orthodox Archdiocese Of America — Orthodox Commemoration of the Feast of Saint Mary of Egypt", Retrieved 2011-09-13
- D. Woods, 'The 60 Martyrs of Gaza and the Martyrdom of Bishop Sophronius of Jerusalem’, ARAM Periodical 15 (2003), 129–50. Reprinted in M. Bonner (ed.), Arab-Byzantine Relations in Early Islamic Times (Aldershot, 2005), 429–50.