The New York Times

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The New York Times
All the News That's Fit to Print
The New York Times print edition on January 13, 2024
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatBroadsheet
Owner(s)The New York Times Company
Founder(s)
PublisherA. G. Sulzberger
Editor-in-chiefJoseph Kahn
Managing editor
Staff writers1,700 (2023)
FoundedSeptember 18, 1851; 172 years ago (1851-09-18)
Headquarters620 Eighth Avenue
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
CountryUnited States
Circulation10,360,000 news subscribers[a] (as of February 2024)
Sister newspapersInternational Herald Tribune (1967–2013)
The New York Times International Edition (1943–1967; 2013–present)
ISSN0362-4331 (print)
1553-8095 (web)
OCLC number1645522
Websitenytimes.com

The New York Times (NYT)[b] is a national daily newspaper based in New York City. A newspaper of record, it is the second-largest newspaper by print circulation and one of the longest-running newspapers in the United States. The New York Times is published by The New York Times Company, a publicly traded company; since 1896, the company has been chaired by the Ochs-Sulzberger family, including its current chairman and the paper's publisher, A. G. Sulzberger. The Times is headquartered at The New York Times Building in Manhattan. The New York Times covers domestic, national, and international news, and comprises opinion pieces, investigative reports, and reviews.

The Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times in 1851 by New-York Tribune journalists Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones as a conservative newspaper, dropping the "Daily" from its title in 1857 and the hyphen in 1896. The Times actively sought to challenge William M. Tweed, the political boss of Tammany Hall, contributing to his 1873 arrest. The New York Times's coverage of the Tweed Ring earned the paper national recognition. After financial difficulties in the years following the Panic of 1893, Chattanooga Times publisher Adolph Ochs gained a controlling interest in the company. Under Ochs, The New York Times experienced significant financial revitalization, expanding its scientific coverage and garnering international recognition. In 1905, the Times moved into the Times Tower on Times Square, later moving to 229 West 43rd Street.

Following his death in 1935, Ochs was succeeded by his son-in-law, Arthur Hays Sulzberger, who began a push into European news. During World War II, The New York Times began an international edition that persisted until 1967. The Times was subject to intense Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security investigations and the paper was accused of employing communists. Sulzberger resigned in 1961, appointing Orvil Dryfoos as his short-lived successor. A newspaper strike in 1962 and 1963 drastically altered the New York newspaper scene. Sulzberger's son-in-law Arthur Ochs became publisher in 1963 after Dryfoos's death, adapting to a changing newspaper industry and introducing radical changes. The New York Times was involved in the landmark Supreme Court case New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964).

In 1971, The New York Times published the Pentagon Papers, an internal Department of Defense document detailing the history of the United States's involvement in the Vietnam War. Then-president Richard Nixon attempted to prevent the Times from publishing the papers through a restraining order. In New York Times Co. v. United States (1971), the Supreme Court ruled in a landmark decision that the First Amendment guaranteed the right for The New York Times, in addition to The Washington Post, to publish the Pentagon Papers under its protection of freedom of the press. Starting in the 1960s, the Times transformed its design. In the 1980s, it began a two-decade progression to digital technology and launched nytimes.com in 1996. In the 21st century, The New York Times has shifted online amid the decline of newspapers.

The New York Times has received 137 Pulitzer Prizes as of 2023, the most of any publication, among other accolades. The Times was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, with the first color photograph appearing on The New York Times's front page in October 1997.[4] The Times has expanded to several other publications, including The New York Times Magazine, The New York Times International Edition, The New York Times Book Review. In addition, the paper has produced several television series, podcasts—including The Daily—and games. The New York Times has been involved in several controversies in its history.

History[edit]

1851–1945[edit]

The New-York Daily Times was established in 1851 by New-York Tribune journalists Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones as a conservative newspaper. The Times experienced significant circulation, particularly among conservatives; New-York Tribune publisher Horace Greeley praised the New-York Daily Times. During the American Civil War, Times correspondents gathered information directly from Confederate states. In 1869, Jones inherited the paper from Raymond, who had changed its name to The New-York Times. Under Jones, the Times began to publish a series of articles criticizing Tammany Hall political boss William M. Tweed, despite vehement opposition from other New York newspapers. In 1871, The New-York Times published Tammany Hall's accounting books; Tweed was tried in 1873 and sentenced to twelve years in prison. The Times earned national recognition for its coverage of Tweed. In 1891, Jones died, creating a management imbroglio in which his children had insufficient business acumen to inherit the company and his will prevented an acquisition of the Times. Editor-in-chief Charles Ransom Miller, editorial editor Edward Cary, and correspondent George F. Spinney established a company to manage The New-York Times, but faced financial difficulties during the Panic of 1893.

In August 1896, Chattanooga Times publisher Adolph Ochs acquired The New-York Times, implementing significant alterations to the newspaper's structure. Ochs established the Times as a merchant's newspaper and removed the hyphen from the newspaper's name. In 1905, The New York Times opened Times Tower, marking expansion. The Times experienced a political realignment in the 1910s amid several disagreements within the Republican Party. The New York Times reported on the sinking of the Titanic as other newspapers were cautious about bulletins from the Associated Press. Through managing editor Carr Van Anda, the Times focused on scientific advancements, reporting on Albert Einstein's then-unknown theory of general relativity and becoming involved in the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun. In April 1935, Ochs died, leaving his son-in-law Arthur Hays Sulzberger as publisher. The Great Depression forced Sulzberger to reduce The New York Times's operations, and developments in the New York newspaper landscape resulted in the formation of larger newspapers, such as the New York Herald Tribune and the New York World-Telegram. In contrast to Ochs, Sulzberger encouraged wirephotography.

The New York Times extensively covered World War II through large headlines. Amid the war, Sulzberger began expanding the Times's operations further, acquiring WQXR-FM in 1944—the first non-Times investment since the Jones era—and established a fashion show. Despite reductions as a result of conscription, The New York Times retained the largest journalism staff of any newspaper. The Times's print edition became available internationally during the war through the Army & Air Force Exchange Service; The New York Times Overseas Weekly later became available in Japan through The Asahi Shimbun and in Germany through the Frankfurter Zeitung. Journalist William L. Laurence publicized the atomic bomb race between the United States and Germany, resulting in the Federal Bureau of Investigation seizing copies of the Times. The United States government recruited Laurence to document the Manhattan Project in April 1945. Laurence became the only witness of the Manhattan Project, a detail realized by employees of The New York Times following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.

1945–1998[edit]

Following World War II, The New York Times continued to expand. The Times was subject to investigations from the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, a McCarthyist subcommittee that investigated purported communism from within press institutions. Arthur Hays Sulzberger's decision to dismiss a copyreader who plead the Fifth Amendment drew ire from within the Times and from external organizations. In April 1961, Sulzberger resigned, appointing his son-in-law, The New York Times Company president Orvil Dryfoos. Under Dryfoos, The New York Times established a newspaper based in Los Angeles. In 1962, the implementation of automated printing presses in response to increasing costs mounted fears over technological unemployment. The New York Typographical Union staged a strike in December, altering the media consumption of New Yorkers. The strike left New York with three remaining newspapers—the Times, the Daily News, and the New York Post—by its conclusion in March 1963. In May, Dryfoos died of a heart ailment in May. Following weeks of ambiguity, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger became The New York Times's publisher.

Technological advancements leveraged by newspapers such as the Los Angeles Times and improvements in coverage from The Washington Post and The Wall Street Journal necessitated adaptations to nascent computing. The New York Times published "Heed Their Rising Voices" in 1960, a full-page advertisement purchased by supporters of Martin Luther King Jr. criticizing law enforcement in Montgomery, Alabama for their response to the civil rights movement. Montgomery Public Safety commissioner L. B. Sullivan sued the Times for defamation. In New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the verdict in Alabama county court and the Supreme Court of Alabama violated the First Amendment. The decision is considered to be landmark. After financial losses, The New York Times ended its international edition, acquiring a stake in the Paris Herald Tribune, forming the International Herald Tribune. The Times initially published the Pentagon Papers, facing opposition from then-president Richard Nixon. The Supreme Court ruled in The New York Times's favor in New York Times Co. v. United States (1971), allowing the Times and The Washington Post to publish the papers.

The New York Times remained cautious in its initial coverage of the Watergate scandal. As Congress began investigating the scandal, the Times furthered its coverage, publishing details on the Huston Plan, alleged wiretapping of reporters and officials, and testimony from James W. McCord Jr. that the Committee for the Re-Election of the President paid the conspirators off. The exodus of readers to suburban New York newspapers, such as Newsday and Gannett papers, adversely affected The New York Times's circulation. Contemporary newspapers balked at additional sections; Time devoted a cover for its criticism and New York wrote that the Times was engaging in "middle-class self-absorption". The New York Times, the Daily News, and the New York Post were the subject of a strike in 1978, allowing emerging newspapers to leverage halted coverage. The Times deliberately avoided coverage of the AIDS epidemic, running its first front page article in May 1983. Max Frankel's editorial coverage of the epidemic, with mentions of anal intercourse, contrasted with then-executive editor A. M. Rosenthal's puritan approach, intentionally avoiding descriptions of the luridity of gay venues.

1998–present[edit]

Following the establishment of nytimes.com, The New York Times retained its journalistic hesitancy under executive editor Joseph Lelyveld, refusing to publish an article reporting on the Clinton–Lewinsky scandal from Drudge Report. nytimes.com editors conflicted with print editors on several occasions, including wrongfully naming security guard Richard Jewell as the suspect in the Centennial Olympic Park bombing and covering the death of Diana, Princess of Wales in greater detail than the print edition. The New York Times Electronic Media Company was adversely affected by the dot-com crash. The Times extensively covered the September 11 attacks. The following day's print issue contained sixty-six articles, the work of over three hundred dispatched reporters. Journalist Judith Miller was the recipient of a package containing a white powder during the 2001 anthrax attacks, furthering anxiety within The New York Times. In September 2002, Miller and military correspondent Michael R. Gordon wrote an article for the Times claiming that Iraq had purchased aluminum tubes. The article was cited by then-president George W. Bush to claim that Iraq was constructing weapons of mass destruction; the theoretical use of aluminum tubes to produce nuclear material was subject of debate. In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq, beginning the Iraq War.

The New York Times attracted controversy after thirty-six articles from journalist Jayson Blair were discovered to be plagiarized. Criticism over then-executive editor Howell Raines and then-managing editor Gerald M. Boyd mounted following the scandal, culminating in a town hall in which a deputy editor criticized Raines for failing to question Blair's sources in article he wrote on the D.C. sniper attacks. In June 2003, Raines and Boyd resigned. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. appointed Bill Keller as executive editor. Miller continued to report on the Iraq War as a journalistic embed covering the country's weapons of mass destruction program. Keller and then-Washington bureau chief Jill Abramson unsuccessfully attempted to subside criticism. Conservative media criticized the Times over its coverage of missing explosives from the Al Qa'qaa weapons facility. An article in December 2005 disclosing warrantless surveillance by the National Security Agency contributed to further criticism from the George W. Bush administration and the Senate's refusal to renew the Patriot Act. In the Plame affair, a Central Intelligence Agency inquiry found that Miller had become aware of Valerie Plame's identity through then-vice president Dick Cheney's chief of staff Scooter Libby, resulting in Miller's resignation.

During the Great Recession, The New York Times suffered significant fiscal difficulties as a consequence of the subprime mortgage crisis and a decline in classified advertising. Exacerbated by Rupert Murdoch's revitalization of The Wall Street Journal through his acquisition of Dow Jones & Company, The New York Times Company began enacting measures to reduce the newsroom budget. The company was forced to borrow US$250 million (equivalent to $339,799,072.64 in 2022) from Mexican billionaire Carlos Slim and fired over one hundred employees by 2010. nytimes.com's coverage of the Eliot Spitzer prostitution scandal, resulting in the resignation of then-New York governor Eliot Spitzer, furthered the legitimacy of the website as a journalistic medium. The Times's economic downturn renewed discussions of an online paywall; The New York Times implemented a paywall in March 2011. Abramson succeeded Keller, continuing her characteristic investigations into corporate and government malfeasance into the Times's coverage. Following conflicts with newly-appointed chief executive Mark Thompson's ambitions, Abramson was dismissed by Sulzberger Jr., who named Dean Baquet as her replacement.

Organization[edit]

Management[edit]

The New York Times Building

Since 1896, The New York Times has been published by the Ochs-Sulzberger family, having previously been published by Henry Jarvis Raymond until 1869[5] and by George Jones until 1896.[6] Adolph Ochs published the Times until his death in 1935,[7] when he was succeeded by his son-in-law, Arthur Hays Sulzberger. Sulzberger was publisher until 1961[8] and was succeeded by Orvil Dryfoos, his son-in-law, who served in the position until his death in 1963.[9] Arthur Ochs Sulzberger succeeded Dryfoos until his resignation in 1992.[10] His son, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., served as publisher until 2018. The New York Times's current publisher is A. G. Sulzberger, Sulzberger Jr.'s son.[11] As of 2023, the Times's executive editor is Joseph Kahn[12] and the paper's managing editors are Marc Lacey and Carolyn Ryan, having been appointed in June 2022.[13] The New York Times's deputy managing editors are Sam Dolnick,[14] Monica Drake,[15] and Steve Duenes,[16] and the paper's assistant managing editors are Matthew Ericson,[17] Jonathan Galinsky, Hannah Poferl, Sam Sifton, Karron Skog,[18] and Michael Slackman.[19]

The New York Times is owned by The New York Times Company, a publicly traded company. The New York Times Company, in addition to the Times, owns Wirecutter, The Athletic, The New York Times Cooking, and The New York Times Games, and acquired Serial Productions and Audm. The New York Times Company holds undisclosed minority investments in multiple other businesses, and formerly owned The Boston Globe and several radio and television stations.[20] The New York Times Company is majority-owned by the Ochs-Sulzberger family through elevated shares in the company's dual-class stock structure held largely in a trust, in effect since the 1950s;[21] as of 2022, the family holds ninety-five percent of The New York Times Company's Class B shares, allowing it to elect seventy percent of the company's board of directors.[22] Class A shareholders have restrictive voting rights.[23] As of 2023, The New York Times Company's chief executive is Meredith Kopit Levien, the company's former chief operating officer who was appointed in September 2020.[24]

Journalists[edit]

As of March 2023, The New York Times Company employs 5,800 individuals,[25] including 1,700 journalists according to deputy managing editor Sam Dolnick.[26] Journalists for The New York Times may not run for public office, provide financial support to political candidates or causes, endorse candidates, or demonstrate public support for causes or movements.[27] Journalists are subject to the guidelines established in "Ethical Journalism" and "Guidelines on Integrity".[28] According to the former, Times journalists must abstain from using sources with a personal relationship to them and must not accept reimbursements or inducements from individuals who may be written about in The New York Times, with exceptions for gifts of nominal value.[29] The latter requires attribution and exact quotations, though exceptions are made for linguistic anomalies. Staff writers are expected to ensure the veracity of all written claims, but may delegate researching obscure facts to the research desk.[30] In March 2021, the Times established a committee to avoid journalistic conflicts of interest with work written for The New York Times, following columnist David Brooks's resignation from the Aspen Institute for his undisclosed work on the initiative Weave.[31]

Bureaus of The New York Times
Location Chief
AfghanistanPakistan Afghanistan and Pakistan Christina Goldbaum[32]
United States Albany, New York, United States Luis Ferré-Sadurní[33]
Argentina Andes, South America Julie Turkewitz[34]
Iraq Baghdad, Iraq [35]
Brazil Brazil Jack Nicas[36]
Belgium Brussels, Belgium Matina Stevis-Gridneff[37]
China Beijing, China Keith Bradsher[38]
Germany Berlin, Germany Katrin Bennhold[39]
Egypt Cairo, Egypt Vivian Yee[40]
United States Chicago, Illinois, United States Julie Bosman[41]
Poland Eastern and Central Europe[c] Andrew Higgins[42]
United States Houston, Texas, United States J. David Goodman[43]
Turkey Istanbul, Turkey Ben Hubbard[44]
Ukraine Kyiv, Ukraine Andrew Kramer[45]
Israel Jerusalem, Israel Patrick Kingsley[46]
South Africa Johannesburg, South Africa John Eligon[47]
United Kingdom London, England Mark Landler[48]
United States Los Angeles, California, United States Corina Knoll[49]
United States Miami, Florida Patricia Mazzei[50]
United States Mid-Atlantic, United States[d] Campbell Robertson[51]
Russia Moscow, Russia Anton Troianovski[42]
Mexico Mexico City, Mexico Natalie Kitroeff[52]
United States New England, United States Jenna Russell[53]
United States New York City Hall, New York, United States Emma Fitzsimmons[54]
United States New York Police Department, New York, United States Maria Cramer[55]
France Paris, France Roger Cohen[56]
Saudi Arabia Persian Gulf[e] Vivian Nereim[57]
Italy Rome, Italy Jason Horowitz[58]
United States San Francisco, California, United States Heather Knight[59]
United States Seattle, Washington, United States Mike Baker[60]
India South Asia[f] Mujib Mashal[62]
Thailand Southeast Asia[g] Sui-Lee Wee[63]
South Korea Seoul, South Korea Choe Sang-Hun[64]
China Shanghai, China Alexandra Stevenson[38]
Australia Sydney Damien Cave[65]
Japan Tokyo, Japan Motoko Rich[66]
United Nations United Nations Farnaz Fassihi[67]
United States Washington, D.C., United States Elisabeth Bumiller[68]
Senegal West Africa[h] Ruth Maclean[69]

Editorial board[edit]

The New York Times
editorial board

The New York Times editorial board was established in 1896 by Adolph Ochs. With the opinion department, the editorial board is independent of the newsroom.[70] Then-editor-in-chief Charles Ransom Miller served as opinion editor from 1883 until his death in 1922.[71] Rollo Ogden succeeded Miller until his death in 1937.[72] From 1937 to 1938, John Huston Finley served as opinion editor; in a prearranged plan, Charles Merz succeeded Finley.[73] Merz served in the position until his retirement in 1961.[74] John Bertram Oakes served as opinion editor from 1961 to 1976, when then-publisher Arthur Ochs Sulzberger appointed Max Frankel.[75] Frankel served in the position until 1986, when he was appointed as executive editor.[76] Jack Rosenthal was the opinion editor from 1986 to 1993.[77] Howell Raines succeeded Rosenthal until 2001, when he was made executive editor.[78] Gail Collins succeeded Raines until her resignation in 2006.[79] From 2007 to 2016, Andrew Rosenthal was the opinion editor.[80] James Bennet succeeded Rosenthal until his resignation in 2020.[81] As of 2023, the editorial board comprises fourteen opinion writers.[82] The New York Times's opinion editor is Kathleen Kingsbury[83] and the deputy opinion editor is Patrick Healy.[18]

The New York Times's editorial board was initially opposed to liberal beliefs, opposing women's suffrage in 1900 and 1914. The editorial board began to espouse progressive beliefs during Oakes' tenure, conflicting with the Ochs-Sulzberger family, of which Oakes was a member as Adolph Ochs's nephew; in 1976, Oakes publicly disavowed with Sulzberger's endorsement of Daniel Patrick Moynihan over Bella Abzug in the 1976 Senate Democratic primaries in a letter sent from Martha's Vineyard. Under Rosenthal, the editorial board took positions supporting assault weapons legislation and the legalization of marijuana, but publicly criticized the Obama administration over its portrayal of terrorism.[80] Since 1960, The New York Times has endorsed Democratic candidates, supporting a total of twelve Republican candidates and thirty Democratic candidates.[84][85][i] With the exception of Wendell Willkie, the Times's Republican presidential endorsements have won the general election. In 2016, the editorial board issued an anti-endorsement against Donald Trump for the first time in its history.[86]

Unionization[edit]

Since 1940, editorial, media, and technology workers of The New York Times have been represented by the New York Times Guild. The Times Guild, along with the Times Tech Guild, are represented by the NewsGuild-CWA.[87] In 1940, Arthur Hays Sulzberger was called upon by the National Labor Relations Board amid accusations that he had discouraged Guild membership in the Times. Over the next few years, the Guild would ratify several contracts, expanding to editorial and news staff in 1942 and maintenance workers in 1943.[88] The New York Times Guild has walked out several times in its history, including for six and a half hours in 1981[89] and in 2017, when copy editors and reporters walked out at lunchtime in response to the elimination of the copy desk.[90] On December 7, 2022, the union held a one-day strike,[91] the first interruption to The New York Times since 1978.[92] The New York Times Guild reached an agreement in May 2023 to increase minimum salaries for employees and a retroactive bonus.[93] The Times Tech Guild is the largest technology union with collective bargaining rights in the United States.[94]

Content[edit]

Circulation[edit]

As of February 2024, The New York Times has 10.36 million subscribers, with 9.7 million online subscribers and 660,000 print subscribers,[95] the second-largest newspaper by print circulation in the United States behind The Wall Street Journal.[96] The New York Times Company intends to have fifteen million subscribers by 2027.[97] The Times's shift towards subscription-based revenue with the debut of an online paywall in 2011 contributed to subscription revenue exceeding advertising revenue the following year, furthered by the 2016 presidential election and Donald Trump.[98] In 2022, Vox wrote that The New York Times's subscribers skew "older, richer, whiter, and more liberal"; to reflect the general population of the United States, the Times has attempted to alter its audience by acquiring The Athletic, investing in verticals such as The New York Times Games and The New York Times Games, and beginning a marketing campaign showing diverse subscribers to the Times. The New York Times Company chief executive Meredith Kopit Levien stated that the average age of subscribers has remained constant.[99]

Newsletters[edit]

In October 2001, The New York Times began publishing DealBook, a financial newsletter edited by Andrew Ross Sorkin. The Times had intended to publish the newsletter in September, but delayed its debut following the September 11 attacks.[100] A website for DealBook was established in March 2006.[101] The New York Times began shifting towards DealBook as part of the newspaper's financial coverage in November 2010 with a renewed website and a presence in the Times's print edition.[102] In 2011, the Times began hosting the DealBook Summit, an annual conference hosted by Sorkin.[103] During the COVID-19 pandemic, The New York Times hosted the DealBook Online Summit in 2020[104] and 2021.[105] The 2022 DealBook Summit featured—among other speakers—former vice president Mike Pence and Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu,[106] culminating in an interview with former FTX chief executive Sam Bankman-Fried; FTX had filed for bankruptcy several weeks prior.[107] The 2023 DealBook Summit's speakers included vice president Kamala Harris, Israeli president Isaac Herzog, and businessman Elon Musk.[103]

In June 2010, The New York Times licensed the political blog FiveThirtyEight in a three-year agreement.[108] The blog, written by Nate Silver, had garnered attention during the 2008 presidential election for predicting the elections in forty-nine of fifty states. FiveThirtyEight appeared on nytimes.com in August.[109] According to Silver, several offers were made for the blog; Silver wrote that a merger of unequals must allow for editorial sovereignty and resources from the acquirer, comparing himself to Groucho Marx.[110] According to The New Republic, FiveThirtyEight drew as much as a fifth of the traffic to nytimes.com during the 2012 presidential election.[111] In July 2013, FiveThirtyEight was sold to ESPN.[112] In an article following Silver's exit, public editor Margaret Sullivan wrote that he was disruptive to the Times's culture for his perspective on probability-based predictions and scorn for polling—having stated that punditry is "fundamentally useless", comparing him to Billy Beane, who implemented sabermetrics in baseball. According to Sullivan, his work was criticized by several notable political journalists.[113]

The New Republic obtained a memo in November 2013 revealing then-Washington bureau chief David Leonhardt's ambitions to establish a data-driven newsletter with presidential historian Michael Beschloss, graphic designer Amanda Cox, economist Justin Wolfers, and The New Republic journalist Nate Cohn.[114] By March, Leonhardt had amassed fifteen employees from within The New York Times; the newsletter's staff included individuals who had created the Times's dialect quiz, fourth down analyzer, and a calculator for determining buying or renting a home.[115] The Upshot debuted in April 2014.[116] Fast Company reviewed an article about Illinois Secure Choice—a state-funded retirement saving system—as "neither a terse news item, nor a formal financial advice column, nor a politically charged response to economic policy", citing its informal and neutral tone.[117] The Upshot developed "the needle" for the 2016 presidential election and 2020 presidential elections, a reviled thermometer dial displaying the probability of a candidate winning.[118] In January 2016, Cox was named editor of The Upshot.[119] Kevin Quealy was named editor in June 2022.[120]

Political positions[edit]

According to an internal readership poll conducted by The New York Times in 2019, eighty-four percent of readers identified as liberal.[121]

Crossword[edit]

In February 1942, The New York Times crossword debuted in The New York Times Magazine; according to Richard Shepard, the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 convinced then-publisher Arthur Hays Sulzberger of the necessity of a crossword.[122]

Cooking[edit]

The New York Times has published recipes since the 1850s and has had a separate food section since the 1940s.[123] In 1961, restaurant critic Craig Claiborne published The New York Times Cookbook,[124] an unauthorized cookbook that drew from the Times's recipes.[125] Since 2010, former food editor Amanda Hesser has published The Essential New York Times Cookbook, a compendium of recipes from The New York Times.[126] The Innovation Report in 2014 revealed that the Times had attempted to establish a cooking website since 1998, but faced difficulties with the absence of a defined data structure.[127] In September 2014, The New York Times introduced NYT Cooking, an application and website.[128] Edited by food editor Sam Sifton,[125] the Times's cooking website features 21,000 recipes as of 2022.[129] NYT Cooking features videos as part of an effort by Sifton to hire two former Tasty employees from BuzzFeed.[125] In August 2023, NYT Cooking added personalized recommendations through the cosine similarity of text embeddings of recipe titles.[130] The website also features no-recipe recipes, a concept proposed by Sifton.[131]

In May 2016, The New York Times Company announced a partnership with startup Chef'd to form a meal delivery service that would deliver ingredients from The New York Times Cooking recipes to subscribers;[132] Chef'd shut down in July 2018 after failing to accrue capital and secure financing.[133] The Hollywood Reporter reported in September 2022 that the Times would expand its delivery options to US$95 cooking kits curated by chefs such as Nina Compton, Chintan Pandya, and Naoko Takei Moore. That month, the staff of NYT Cooking went on tour with Compton, Pandya, and Moore in Los Angeles, New Orleans, and New York City, culminating in a food festival.[134] In addition, The New York Times offered its own wine club originally operated by the Global Wine Company. The New York Times Wine Club was established in August 2009, during a dramatic decrease in advertising revenue.[135] By 2021, the wine club was managed by Lot18, a company that provides proprietary labels. Lot18 managed the Williams Sonoma Wine Club and its own wine club Tasting Room.[136]

Archives[edit]

The New York Times archives its articles in a basement annex beneath its building known as "the morgue", a venture started by managing editor Carr Van Anda in 1907. The morgue comprises news clippings, a pictures library, and the Times's book and periodicals library. As of 2014, it is the largest library of any media company, dating back to 1851.[137] In November 2018, The New York Times partnered with Google to digitize the Archival Library.[138] Additionally, The New York Times has maintained a virtual microfilm reader known as TimesMachine since 2014. The service launched with archives from 1851 to 1980; in 2016, TimesMachine expanded to include archives from 1981 to 2002. The Times built a pipeline to take in TIFF images, article metadata in XML and an INI file of Cartesian geometry describing the boundaries of the page, and convert it into a PNG of image tiles and JSON containing the information in the XML and INI files. The image tiles are generated using GDAL and displayed using Leaflet, using data from a content delivery network. The Times ran optical character recognition on the articles using Tesseract and shingled and fuzzy string matched the result.[139]

Content management system[edit]

The New York Times uses a proprietary[140] content management system known as Scoop for its online content and the Microsoft Word-based content management system CCI for its print content. Scoop was developed in 2008 to serve as a secondary content management system for editors working in CCI to publish their content on the Times's website; as part of The New York Times's online endeavors, editors now write their content in Scoop and send their work to CCI for print publication. Since its introduction, Scoop has superseded several processes within the Times, including print edition planning and collaboration, and features tools such as multimedia integration, notifications, content tagging, and drafts. The New York Times uses private articles for high-profile opinion pieces, such as those written by Russian president Vladimir Putin and actress Angelina Jolie, and for high-level investigations.[141] In January 2012, the Times released Integrated Content Editor (ICE), a revision tracking tool for WordPress and TinyMCE. ICE is integrated within the Times's workflow by providing a unified text editor for print and online editors, reducing the divide between print and online operations.[142]

By 2017,[143] The New York Times began developing a new authoring tool to its content management system known as Oak, in an attempt to further the Times's visual efforts in articles and reduce the discrepancy between the mediums in print and online articles.[144] The system reduces the input of editors and supports additional visual mediums in an editor that resembles the appearance of the article.[143] Oak is based on ProseMirror, a JavaScript rich-text editor toolkit, and retains the revision tracking and commenting functionalities of The New York Times's previous systems. Additionally, Oak supports predefined article headers.[145] In 2019, Oak was updated to support collaborative editing using Firebase to update editors's cursor status. Several Google Cloud Functions and Google Cloud Tasks allow articles to be previewed as they will be printed, and the Times's primary MySQL database is regularly updated to update editors on the article status.[146]

Style and design[edit]

Style guide[edit]

Since 1895, The New York Times has maintained a manual of style in several forms. The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage was published on the Times's intranet in 1999.[147]

The New York Times uses honorifics when referring to individuals. With the AP Stylebook's removal of honorifics in 2000 and The Wall Street Journal's omission of courtesy titles in May 2023, the Times is the only national newspaper that continues to use honorifics. According to former copy editor Merrill Perlman, The New York Times continues to use honorifics as a "sign of civility".[148] The Times's use of courtesy titles led to an apocryphal rumor that the paper had referred to singer Meat Loaf as "Mr. Loaf".[149] Several exceptions have been made; the former sports section and The New York Times Book Review do not use honorifics.[150] A leaked memo following the killing of Osama bin Laden in May 2011 revealed that editors were given a last-minute instruction to omit the honorific from Osama bin Laden's name, consistent with deceased figures of historic significance, such as Adolf Hitler, Napoleon, and Vladimir Lenin.[151] The New York Times uses academic and military titles for individuals prominently serving in that position.[152] In 1986, the Times began to use Ms,[150] and introduced the gender-neutral title Mx. in 2015.[153] The New York Times uses initials when a subject has expressed a preference, such as Donald Trump.[154]

The New York Times maintains a strict but not absolute obscenity policy, including phrases. In a review of the Canadian hardcore punk band Fucked Up, music critic Kelefa Sanneh wrote that the band's name—entirely rendered in asterisks—would not be printed in the Times "unless an American president, or someone similar, says it by mistake";[155] The New York Times did not repeat then-vice president Dick Cheney's use of "fuck" against then-senator Patrick Leahy in 2004[156] or then-vice president Joe Biden's remarks that the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 was a "big fucking deal".[157] The Times's profanity policy has been tested by former president Donald Trump. The New York Times published Trump's Access Hollywood tape in October 2016 containing the words "fuck", "pussy", "bitch", and "tits", the first time the publication had published an expletive on its front page,[158] and repeated an explicit phrase for fellatio stated by then-White House communications director Anthony Scaramucci in July 2017.[159] The New York Times omitted Trump's use of the phrase "shithole countries" from its headline in favor of "vulgar language" in January 2018.[160] The Times banned certain words, such as "bitch", "whore", and "sluts", from Wordle in 2022.[161]

Headlines[edit]

Journalists for The New York Times do not write their own headlines, but rather copy editors who specifically write headlines. The Times's guidelines insist headline editors get to the main point of an article but avoid giving away endings, if present. Other guidelines include using slang "sparingly", avoiding tabloid headlines, not ending a line on a preposition, article, or adjective, and chiefly, not to pun. The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage states that wordplay, such as "Rubber Industry Bounces Back", is to be tested on a colleague as a canary is to be tested in a coal mine; "when no song bursts forth, start rewriting".[162] The New York Times has amended headlines due to controversy. In 2019, following two back-to-back mass shootings in El Paso and Dayton, the Times used the headline, "Trump Urges Unity vs. Racism", to describe then-president Donald Trump's words after the shootings. After criticism from FiveThirtyEight founder Nate Silver, the headline was changed to, "Assailing Hate But Not Guns".[163]

Online, The New York Times's headlines do not face the same length restrictions as headlines that appear in print; print headlines must fit within a column, often six words. Additionally, headlines must "break" properly, containing a complete thought on each line without splitting up prepositions and adverbs. Writers may edit a headline to fit an article more aptly if further developments occur. The Times uses A/B testing for articles on the front page, placing two headlines against each other. At the end of the test, the headlines that receives more traffic is chosen.[164] The alteration of a headline regarding intercepted Russian data used in the Mueller special counsel investigation was noted by Trump in a March 2017 interview with Time, in which he claimed that the headline used the word "wiretapped" in the print version of the paper on January 20, while the digital article on January 19 omitted the word. The headline was intentionally changed in the print version to use "wiretapped" in order to fit within the print guidelines.[165]

Nameplate[edit]

The nameplate of The New York Times has been unaltered since 1967. In creating the initial nameplate, Henry Jarvis Raymond sought to model The London Times, which used textura popularized following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and regional variations of Alcuin's script, as well as a period. With the change to The New-York Times on September 14, 1857, the nameplate followed. Under George Jones, the terminals of the "N", "r", and "s" were intentionally exaggerated into swashes. The nameplate in the January 15, 1894, issue trimmed the terminals once more, smoothed the edges, and turned the stem supporting the "T" into an ornament. The hyphen was dropped on December 1, 1896, after Adolph Ochs purchased the paper. The descender of the "h" was shortened on December 30, 1914. The largest change to the nameplate was introduced on February 21, 1967, when type designer Ed Benguiat redesigned the logo, most prominently turning the arrow ornament into a diamond. Notoriously, the new logo dropped the period that remained with the Times up until that point; one reader compared the omission of the period to "performing plastic surgery on Helen of Troy." Picture editor John Radosta worked with a New York University professor to determine that dropping the period saved the paper US$41.28 (equivalent to $362.29 in 2022).[166]

Print edition[edit]

Design and layout[edit]

As of December 2023, The New York Times has printed sixty thousand issues, a statistic represented in the paper's masthead to the right of the volume number, the Times's years in publication written in Roman numerals.[167] The volume and issues are separated by four dots representing the edition number of that issue; on the day of the 2000 presidential election, the Times was revised four separate times, necessitating the use of an em dash in place of an ellipsis.[168] The em dash issue was printed hundreds times over before being replaced by the one-dot issue. Despite efforts by newsroom employees to recycle copies sent to The New York Times's office, several copies were kept, including one put on display at the Museum at The Times.[169] From February 7, 1898, to December 31, 1999, the Times's issue number was incorrect by five hundred issues, an error suspected by The Atlantic to be the result of a careless front page type editor. The misreporting was noticed by news editor Aaron Donovan, who was calculating the number of issues in a spreadsheet and noticed the discrepancy. The New York Times celebrated fifty thousand issues on March 14, 1995, an observance that should have occurred on July 26, 1996.[170]

The New York Times has reduced the physical size of its print edition while retaining its broadsheet format. The New-York Daily Times debuted at 18 inches (460 mm) across. By the 1950s, the Times was being printed at 16 inches (410 mm) across. In 1953, an increase in paper costs to US$10 (equivalent to $109.38 in 2022) a ton increased newsprint costs to US$21.7 million (equivalent to $296,414,676.62 in 2022) On December 28, 1953, the pages were reduced to 15.5 inches (390 mm). On February 14, 1955, a further reduction to 15 inches (380 mm) occurred, followed by 14.5 inches (370 mm) and 13.5 inches (340 mm). On August 6, 2007, the largest cut occurred when the pages were reduced to 12 inches (300 mm),[j] a decision that other broadsheets had previously considered. Then-executive editor Bill Keller stated that a narrower paper would be more beneficial to the reader but acknowledged a net loss in article space of five percent.[171] In 1985, The New York Times Company established a minority stake in a US$21.7 million (equivalent to $296,414,676.62 in 2022) newsprint plant in Clermont, Quebec through Donahue Malbaie.[172] The company sold its equity interest in Donahue Malbaie in 2017.[173]

The New York Times often uses large, bolded headlines for major events. For the print version of the Times, these headlines are written by one copy editor, reviewed by two other copy editors, approved by the masthead editors, and polished by other print editors. The process is completed before 8 p.m., but it may be repeated if further development occur, as did take place during the 2020 presidential election. On the day Joe Biden was declared the winner, The New York Times utilized a "hammer headline" reading, "Biden Beats Trump", in all caps and bolded. A dozen journalists discussed several potential headlines, such as "It's Biden" or "Biden's Moment", and prepared for a Donald Trump victory, in which they would use "Trump Prevails".[174] During Trump's first impeachment, the Times drafted the hammer headline, "Trump Impeached". The New York Times altered the ligatures between the E and the A, as not doing so would leave a noticeable gap due to the stem of the A sloping away from the E. The Times reused the tight kerning for "Biden Beats Trump" and Trump's second impeachment, which simply read, "Impeached".[175]

In cases where two major events occur on the same day or immediately after each other, The New York Times has used a "paddle wheel" headline, where both headlines are used but split by a line. The term dates back to August 8, 1959, when it was revealed that the United States was monitoring Soviet missile firings and when Explorer 6—shaped like a paddle wheel—launched. Since then, the paddle wheel has been used several times, including on January 21, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was sworn in minutes before Iran released fifty-two American hostages, ending the Iran hostage crisis. At the time, most newspapers favored the end of the hostage crisis, but the Times placed the inauguration above the crisis. Since 1981, the paddle wheel has been used twice; on July 26, 2000, when the 2000 Camp David Summit ended without an agreement and when Bush announced that Dick Cheney would be his running mate, and on June 24, 2016, when the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum passed, beginning Brexit, and when the Supreme Court deadlocked in United States v. Texas.[176]

The New York Times has run editorials from its editorial board on the front page twice. On June 13, 1920, the Times ran an editorial opposing Warren G. Harding, who was nominated during that year's Republican Party presidential primaries.[177] Amid growing acceptance to run editorials on the front pages[178] from publications such as the Detroit Free Press, The Patriot-News, The Arizona Republic, and The Indianapolis Star, The New York Times ran an editorial on its front page on December 5, 2015, following a terrorist attack in San Bernadino, California, in which fourteen people were killed.[179] The editorial advocates for the prohibition of "slightly modified combat rifles" used in the San Bernardino shooting and "certain kinds of ammunition".[177] Conservative figures, including Texas senator Ted Cruz, The Weekly Standard editor Bill Kristol, Fox & Friends co-anchor Steve Doocy, and then-New Jersey governor Chris Christie criticized the Times. Talk radio host Erick Erickson acquired an issue of The New York Times to fire several rounds into the paper, posting a picture online.[180]

Printing process[edit]

The New York Times's distribution center in College Point, Queens

Since 1997,[181] The New York Times's primary distribution center is located in College Point, Queens. The facility is 300,000 sq ft (28,000 m2) and employs 170 people as of 2017. The College Point distribution center prints 300,000 to 800,000 newspapers daily. On most occasions, presses start before 11 p.m. and finish before 3 a.m. A robotic crane grabs a roll of newsprint and several rollers ensure ink can be printed on paper. The final newspapers are wrapped in plastic and shipped out.[182] As of 2018, the College Point facility accounted for 41 percent of production. Other copies are printed at 26 other publications, such as The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, The Dallas Morning News, The Santa Fe New Mexican, and the Courier Journal. With the decline of newspapers, particularly regional publications, the Times must travel further; for example, newspapers for Hawaii are flown from San Francisco on United Airlines, and Sunday papers are flown from Los Angeles on Hawaiian Airlines. Computer glitches, mechanical issues, and weather phenomena affect circulation but do not stop the paper from reaching customers.[183] The College Point facility prints over two dozen other papers, including The Wall Street Journal and USA Today.[184]

The New York Times has halted its printing process several times to account for major developments. The first printing stoppage occurred on March 31, 1968, when then-president Lyndon B. Johnson announced that he would not seek a second term. Other press stoppages include May 19, 1994, for the death of former first lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, and July 17, 1996, for Trans World Airlines Flight 800. The 2000 presidential election necessitated two press stoppages. Al Gore appeared to concede on November 8, forcing then-executive editor Joseph Lelyveld to stop the Times's presses to print a new headline, "Bush Appears to Defeat Gore", with a story that stated George W. Bush was elected president. However, Gore held off his concession speech over doubts over Florida. Lelyveld reran the headline, "Bush and Gore Vie for an Edge". Since 2000, three printing stoppages have been issued for the death of William Rehnquist on September 3, 2005, for the killing of Osama bin Laden on May 1, 2011, and for the passage of the Marriage Equality Act in the New York State Assembly and subsequent signage by then-governor Andrew Cuomo on June 24, 2011.[185]

Online platforms[edit]

Website[edit]

nytimes.com has undergone several major redesigns and infrastructure developments since its debut. In April 2006, The New York Times redesigned its website with an emphasis on multimedia.[186] In preparation for Super Tuesday in February 2008, the Times developed a live election system using the Associated Press's File Transfer Protocol (FTP) service and a Ruby on Rails application; nytimes.com experienced its largest traffic on Super Tuesday and the day after.[187]

nytimes.com is supported by online advertising and subscriptions. In response to legislation such as the General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union and California Consumer Privacy Act in California, The New York Times developed its own advertising data program for its direct-sold advertising business in June 2020.[188]

The New York Times began using live blogs as chats for the 2012 Republican Party presidential debates, later using Slack for the 2016 Republican debates,[189] and covered the November 2015 Paris attacks with a live blog.[190] Live blogs begin with a primary post affixed before the live updates to overview the event.[191] The Times has used several other live formats, including a live chat—used during the inauguration of Joe Biden to provide side-by-side commentary with live coverage, a live briefing—used during the COVID-19 pandemic for incremental updates over a longer span of time, and a live blog—used during the trial of Derek Chauvin for quickly-changing events. Live blogs feature long-form articles woven with short observations.[192] The COVID-19 pandemic shifted The New York Times's approach, requiring syncronous collaboration from reporters in different time zones and necessitating the use of email, encrypted apps, chat groups, Google Docs, and phones; the live briefing for the pandemic is the longest-running briefing the Times has run.[193] The COVID-19 pandemic involved the use of relays from New York to Hong Kong, Seoul, and London.[194]

The New York Times added an anonymous tip page in December 2016 with support for WhatsApp, Signal, encrypted email, and SecureDrop as part of an initiative by deputy investigations editor Gabriel Dance and then-information security director Runa Sandvik.[195] By March 2017, the additional channels had revealed audio from Hillary Clinton in reaction to the 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak, queries from Donald Trump's transition team indicating skepticism of foreign aid, and regulations preventing Wells Fargo from offering severance pay in the aftermath of a cross-selling scandal in September 2016.[196] The article on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's raid of Michael Cohen's office began with an online tip. The Times receives hundreds of tip submissions per day.[195] The submissions were initially added to a spreadsheet managed by Dance,[196] but are now added to a database.[195] In October 2017, The New York Times added Tor network support to nytimes.com using Enterprise Onion Toolkit. The Times rebuilt its Onion service and issued a new address in 2021.[197]

In late 2007, The New York Times introduced a comments section to its articles. The Times's comments section is manually moderated;[198] as of 2017, twelve moderators are responsible for approving comments at a rate of twelve thousand comments per day. The New York Times's comment section does not tolerate, among other things, personal attacks, obscenities, and profanity, in an effort to ensure cogency. The moderation team uses an internal rulebook to determine potentially rule-breaking comments. In one comment, the community desk questioned the use of the word "prostitute" in a comment critiquing Republican lawmakers for having "sold themselves to the privileged few", with one moderator stating that it was acceptable as a verb. The comment was rejected nonetheless.[199] Comments are enabled on an individual basis. As a result, fewer articles are opened for comments on weekends.[200] In June 2017, The New York Times partnered with Jigsaw and Instrument to develop Moderator, a moderation tool that uses machine learning trained on the Times's sixteen million comments to determine if a comment should be approved.[201] The introduction of Moderator allowed the Times to expand the number of articles with comments enabled.[202]

Applications[edit]

The NYTimes application debuted with the introduction of the App Store on July 10, 2008. Engadget's Scott McNulty wrote critically of the app, negatively comparing it to The New York Times's mobile website.[203] An iPad version with select articles was released on April 3, 2010, with the release of the first-generation iPad.[204] In October, The New York Times expanded NYT Editors' Choice to include the paper's full articles. NYT for iPad was free until 2011.[205] The Times applications on iPhone and iPad began offering in-app subscriptions in July 2011.[206] The Times released a web application for iPad—featuring a format summarizing trending headlines on Twitter[207]—and a Windows 8 application in October 2012.[208]

Efforts to ensure profitability through an online magazine and a "Need to Know" subscription emerged in Adweek in July 2013.[209] In March 2014, The New York Times announced three applications—NYT Now, an application that offers pertinent news in a blog format, and two unnamed applications, later known as NYT Opinion[210] and NYT Cooking[127]—to diversify its product laterals.[211]

Podcasts[edit]

The Daily is the modern front page of The New York Times.

Sam Dolnick, speaking to Intelligencer in January 2020[212]

The New York Times manages several podcasts, including multiple podcasts with Serial Productions. The Times's longest-running podcast is The Book Review Podcast,[213] debuting as Inside The New York Times Book Review in April 2006.[214]

The New York Times's defining podcast is The Daily,[212] a daily news podcast hosted by Michael Barbaro and, since March 2022, Sabrina Tavernise.[215] The podcast debuted on February 1, 2017.[216]

In October 2021, The New York Times began testing "New York Times Audio", an application featuring podcasts from the Times, audio versions of articles—including from other publications through Audm, and archives from This American Life.[217] The application debuted in May 2023 exclusively on iOS for Times subscribers. New York Times Audio includes exclusive podcasts such as The Headlines, a daily news recap, and Shorts, short audio stories under ten minutes. In addition, a "Reporter Reads" section features Times journalists reading their articles and providing commentary.[218]

Games[edit]

The New York Times has used video games as part of its journalistic efforts, among the first publications to do so,[219] contributing to an increase in Internet traffic.[220] The Times began publishing Persuasive Games's newsgames in May 2007, including Food Import Folly,[221] a video game about the Food and Drug Administration's import inspection process.[222] The New York Times released Gauging Your Distraction, a video game about mobile phones and driving safety developed by psychology professors David Strayer and David E. Meyer, in July 2009.[223] In November 2016, the Times released The Voter Suppression Trail, a video game inspired by The Oregon Trail (1985). In the game, players play as either a white programmer from California, a Latina nurse from Texas, or an African-American salesman from Wisconsin, and attempt to vote in the 2016 presidential election. While the white programmer is able to vote with ease, the Latina nurse and African-American salesman experience long voting lines, strict voter identification laws, and election observers supportive of Donald Trump.[224] The Voter Suppression Trail was developed by Chris Baker, Brian Moore, and Mike Lacher of GOP Arcade[225] and is the first game to debut on the Op-Docs page.[226]

The New York Times has developed its own video games. In 2014, The New York Times Magazine introduced Spelling Bee, a word game in which players guess words from a set of letters in a honeycomb and are awarded points for the length of the word and receive extra points if the word is a pangram.[227] The game was proposed by Will Shortz, created by Frank Longo, and has been maintained by Sam Ezersky. In May 2018, Spelling Bee was published on nytimes.com, furthering its popularity.[228] In February 2019, the Times introduced Letter Boxed, in which players form words from letters placed on the edges of a square box,[229] followed in June 2019 by Tiles, a matching game in which players form sequences of tile pairings, and Vertex, in which players connect vertices to assemble an image.[230] In July 2023, The New York Times introduced Connections, in which players identify groups of words that are connected by a common property.[231] In April, the Times introduced Digits, a number-based game; Digits was shut down in August.[232]

In January 2022, The New York Times Company acquired Wordle, a word game developed by Josh Wardle in 2021, at a valuation in the "low-seven figures".[233] The acquisition was proposed by David Perpich, a member of the Sulzberger family who proposed the purchase to Knight[234] over Slack after reading about the game.[235] The Washington Post purportedly considered acquiring Wordle, according to Vanity Fair.[234] At the 2022 Game Developers Conference, Wardle stated that he was overwhelmed by the volume of Wordle facsimiles and overzealous monetization practices in other games.[236] Concerns over The New York Times monetizing Wordle by implementing a paywall mounted;[237] Wordle is a client-side browser game and can be played offline by downloading its webpage.[238] Wordle moved to the Times's servers and website in February.[239] The game was added to the NYT Games application in August,[240] necessitating it be rewritten in the JavaScript library React.[241] In November, The New York Times announced that Tracy Bennett would be the Wordle's editor.[242]

In April 2009, The New York Times released a crossword application for iOS developed by Magmic.[243] A sudoku application developed by Magmic was released in October.[244] NYT Crosswords debuted on the Google Play Store in November 2016.[245] In April 2017, the application was added to the Amazon Appstore. NYT Crosswords supports saving across devices and nytimes.com.[246] In March 2023, NYT Crosswords was renamed to NYT Games to address the application's other games, including Wordle, Spelling Bee, Tiles, and Sudoku. According to Jonathan Knight, chief executive of The New York Times Games, the Times was concerned over how the application would rank in search results for "crossword".[247] In May 2007,[248] The New York Times released The New York Times Crosswords for the Nintendo DS. The game, developed by Budcat Creations and published by Majesco Entertainment, features The New York Times crossword puzzles from March 2004 to November 2006. The New York Times Crosswords includes a campaign mode, in which the player solves seven successive puzzles with increasing difficulty.[249]

Social media[edit]

In October 2017, The New York Times issued guidelines for its journalists, exercising neutrality, transparency, and professionalism. The Times revised its guidelines in November 2020 to reflect the use of blocking and muting on Twitter.[250] Then-executive editor Dean Baquet urged journalists to use social media less in a letter to employees in April 2022, removing the requirement to maintain a presence on social media. The letter followed a public feud between outgoing technology reporter Taylor Lorenz and White House correspondent Maggie Haberman on Twitter and the resignations of opinion editors James Bennet and Bari Weiss in 2020 following backlash online;[251] Lorenz faced social media harassment following a segment on Tucker Carlson Tonight in March 2021, in which eponymous host Tucker Carlson accused Lorenz of being privileged. The New York Times subsequently released a statement defending Lorenz and calling Carlson's comments "calculated and cruel".[252] Baquet additionally announced an initiative to support journalists experiencing harassment.[251] Times reporter Ryan Mac was among several journalists suspended on Twitter in December 2022.[253] @nytimesworld was mistakenly suspended in November 2017 after tweeting about Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau's apology to indigenous peoples in Newfoundland and Labrador.[254]

The New York Times maintains a social media presence for breaking news events[255] and has fifty-five million followers on Twitter as of March 2023.[256] Following reports that Twitter would charge businesses US$1,000 per month to retain their verification status in February 2023,[257] The New York Times stated that it would not pay for verification in a statement in April.[258] Twitter chief executive Elon Musk removed @nytimes's verification status after the statement was released,[259] though it was reinstated later that month.[260] Other affiliated accounts, such as @nytimesarts, retained their verification status.[261] Musk repeatedly insulted the Times after making the decision, writing that the paper was "propaganda".[262] In August, Musk criticized The New York Times for publishing an article describing South African political party Economic Freedom Fighters leader Julius Malema's chants of dubul' ibhunu as an literal call to violence; the article quoted Musk as stating that Malema was advocating for white genocide.[263] A report from The Washington Post revealed that Twitter was throttling links by five seconds to the Times from its link shortener t.co.[264] In October, @nytimes's verification status was removed.[265]

Virtual and augmented reality[edit]

In February 2018, The New York Times published an augmented reality article for iOS devices, allowing readers to view three-dimensional models of Olympic athletes Nathan Chen, J. R. Celski, Alex Rigsby, and Anna Gasser.[266] Augmented reality technology was used in a David Bowie feature in March, with support for Android's ARCore platform.[267]

Other services[edit]

In June 2012, The New York Times signed a content deal with news aggregation service Flipboard, allowing users to read content from the Times on the service.[268] The New York Times Company and German mass media company Axel Springer invested US$3.8 million in Dutch online news platform Blendle, a service that allows users to pay for access to individual articles,[269] acquiring a joint stake in the company.[270] The New York Times signed a deal to license its content on Blendle in the Netherlands and Germany by 2015.[271] Blendle debuted in the United States in March 2016[272] with the Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Economist, and the Financial Times, releasing a mobile application in May.[273] In March 2011, Amazon announced that subscriptions to The New York Times through its Kindle e-readers would grant access to nytimes.com,[274] followed by the Barnes & Noble Nook in April.[275] In March 2023, Amazon ceased sales on newspaper subscriptions through Kindle Newsstand[276] and canceled existing subscriptions in September.[277] In February 2013, the Times offered fifteen free articles to Starbucks customers per day,[278] an offer added to the company's loyalty program in 2016.[279]

The New York Times was formerly[280] available on Apple's news aggregator service Apple News and was among several publications to partner with Apple, debuting with the service in November 2015.[281] A study by the Tow Center for Digital Journalism found that the Times was among the largest publications on Apple News.[282] In March 2019, The New York Times dramatically reduced the coverage it provides to Apple ahead of the company's announcement of a subscription service for Apple News; then-chief executive officer Mark Thompson stated that the Times should be "intelligent in the way [it thinks] about [its] partnerships with these platforms" and announced a similar reduction it would impose on Facebook.[283] The New York Times was not included in Apple News+.[284] In June 2020, the Times ceased distributing its articles in Apple News. Then-chief operating officer Meredith Kopit Levien stated that Apple News does not allow for the Times to control the "presentation of [its] report". Apple told The Verge that The New York Times only provided a few stories per day.[285] In May 2023, The Wall Street Journal reported that The New York Times Company had signed an agreement with Google to feature the Times's content on Google News for US$100 million over three years.[286] In December, Wirecutter and The Athletic joined Apple News+.[287]

Other publications[edit]

The New York Times Magazine[edit]

The New York Times Magazine and The Boston Globe Magazine are the only weekly Sunday magazines following The Washington Post Magazine's cancellation in December 2022.[288]

The New York Times International Edition[edit]

The New York Times in Spanish[edit]

In February 2016, The New York Times introduced a Spanish website, The New York Times en Español.[289] The website, intended to be read on mobile devices, would contain translated articles from the Times and reporting from journalists based in Mexico City.[290] The Times en Español's style editor is Paulina Chavira, who has advocated for pluralistic Spanish to accommodate the variety of nationalities in the newsroom's journalists and wrote a stylebook for The New York Times en Español[291] Articles the Times intends to publish in Spanish are sent to a translation agency and adapted for Spanish writing conventions; the present progressive tense may be used for forthcoming events in English, but other tenses are preferable in Spanish. The Times en Español consults the Real Academia Española and Fundéu and frequently modifies the use of diacritics—such as using an acute accent for the Cártel de Sinaloa but not the Cartel de Medellín—and using the gender-neutral pronoun elle.[292] Headlines in The New York Times en Español are not capitalized. The Times en Español publishes El Times, a newsletter led by Elda Cantú intended for all Spanish speakers.[293] In September 2019, The New York Times ended The New York Times en Español's separate operations.[294] A study published in The Translator in 2023 found that the Times en Español engaged in tabloidization.[295]

The New York Times in Chinese[edit]

In June 2012, The New York Times introduced a Chinese website, 纽约时报中文, in response to Chinese editions created by The Wall Street Journal and the Financial Times. Conscious to censorship, the Times established servers outside of China and affirmed that the website would uphold the paper's journalistic standards; the government of China had previously blocked articles from nytimes.com through the Great Firewall,[296] and the website was blocked in China until August 2001 after then-general secretary Jiang Zemin met with journalists from The New York Times.[297] Then-foreign editor Joseph Kahn assisted in the establishment of cn.nytimes.com, an effort that contributed to his appointment as executive editor in April 2022.[298] In October, 纽约时报中文 published an article detailing the wealth of then-premier Wen Jiabao's family. In response, the government of China blocked access to nytimes.com and cn.nytimes.com and references to the Times and Wen were censored on microblogging service Sina Weibo.[297] In March 2015, a mirror of 纽约时报中文 and the website for GreatFire were the targets for a government-sanctioned distributed denial of service attack on GitHub in March 2015, disabling access to the service for several days.[299] Chinese authorities requested the removal of The New York Times's news applications from the App Store in December 2016.[300]

Awards and recognition[edit]

Awards[edit]

As of 2023, The New York Times has received 137 Pulitzer Prizes,[301] the most of any publication.[302]

Recognition[edit]

The New York Times is considered a newspaper of record in the United States.[k] The Times is the largest metropolitan newspaper in the United States;[306] as of 2022, The New York Times is the second-largest newspaper by print circulation in the United States behind The Wall Street Journal.[96]

A study published in Science, Technology, & Human Values in 2013 found that The New York Times received more citations in academic journals than the American Sociological Review, Research Policy, or the Harvard Law Review.[307] With sixteen million unique records, the Times is the third-most referenced source in Common Crawl, a collection of online material used in datasets such as GPT-3, behind Wikipedia and a United States patent database.[308]

The New Yorker's Max Norman wrote in March 2023 that the Times has shaped mainstream English usage.[309] In a January 2018 article for The Washington Post, Margaret Sullivan stated that The New York Times affects the "whole media and political ecosystem".[310]

The New York Times's nascent success has led to concerns over media consolidation, particularly amid the decline of newspapers. In 2006, economists Lisa George and Joel Waldfogel examined the consequences of the Times's national distribution strategy and audience with circulation of local newspapers, finding that local circulation decreased among college-educated readers.[311] The effect of The New York Times in this manner was observed in The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead, the newspaper of record for Fargo, North Dakota.[312] Axios founder Jim VandeHei opined that the Times is "going to basically be a monopoly" in an opinion piece written by then-media columnist and former BuzzFeed News editor-in-chief Ben Smith; in the article, Smith argued that the strength of The New York Times's journalistic workforce, broadening content, and the expropriation of Gawker editor-in-chief Choire Sicha, Recode editor-in-chief Kara Swisher, and Quartz editor-in-chief Kevin Delaney. Smith compared the Times to the New York Yankees during their 1927 season containing Murderers' Row.[313]

Critical reception[edit]

The New York Times's coverage of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict has received criticism, and the paper's stance on Israel has been a topic of contention. In December 2022, opinion columnist Thomas Friedman and the editorial board criticized Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu in separate articles after Netanyahu formed a coalition with the far-right. In response, Netanyahu criticized the Times on Twitter.[314] The Independent wrote that the tweet may have been related to that day's The New York Times crossword, which bore a resemblance to a swastika.[315] The New York Times published a headline claiming that Israel was responsible for the Al-Ahli Arab Hospital explosion, attributing the explosion to claims by Hamas. The Times issued an editors' note several days later;[316] president Joe Biden reportedly privately expressed that the headline could have escalated the Israel–Hamas war.[317]

The New York Times has received criticism regarding its coverage of transgender people. When it published an opinion piece by Weill Cornell Medicine professor Richard A. Friedman called "How Changeable Is Gender?" in August 2015,[318] Vox's German Lopez criticized Friedman as suggesting that parents and doctors might be right in letting children suffer from severe dysphoria in case something changes down the line, and as implying that conversion therapy may work for transgender children.[319] In February 2023, nearly one thousand[320] current and former Times writers and contributors wrote an open letter addressed to standards editor Philip B. Corbett, criticizing the paper's coverage of transgender, non⁠-⁠binary, and gender-nonconforming people; some of the Times' articles have been cited in state legislatures attempting to justify criminalizing gender-affirming care.[321] Contributors wrote in the open letter that "the Times has in recent years treated gender diversity with an eerily familiar mix of pseudoscience and euphemistic, charged language, while publishing reporting on trans children that omits relevant information about its sources."[l]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Includes 9,700,000 online-only and 660,000 print subscribers.
  2. ^ Also referred to as the Times[1] or the NY Times.[2] The New York Times uses the domain nytimes.com.[3]
  3. ^ Based in Warsaw, Poland.[42]
  4. ^ Based in Washington, D.C.[51]
  5. ^ Based in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.[57]
  6. ^ Based in New Delhi, India.[61]
  7. ^ Based in Bangkok, Thailand.[63]
  8. ^ Based in Dakar, Senegal.[69]
  9. ^ In 1896, the Times endorsed John M. Palmer, the National Democratic Party nominee, its only endorsement for a candidate who is not a member of the Republican Party or the Democratic Party.[84]
  10. ^ The national edition of The New York Times uses 11.5 inches (290 mm) pages.[171]
  11. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [303][304][305]
  12. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [322][323][324][325]

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Works cited[edit]

The New York Times[edit]

The New York Times Company[edit]

Books[edit]

Reports[edit]

Magazines[edit]

Journals[edit]

Podcasts[edit]

Articles[edit]