Yad Vashem

Coordinates: 31°46′27″N 35°10′32″E / 31.77417°N 35.17556°E / 31.77417; 35.17556
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Yad Vashem
יָד וַשֵׁם
Yad Vashem Logo.svg
Yad Vashem View.jpg
Aerial view of Yad Vashem
Established19 August 1953
LocationOn the western slope of Mount Herzl, also known as the Mount of Remembrance, a height in western Jerusalem, Israel
Coordinates31°46′27″N 35°10′32″E / 31.77417°N 35.17556°E / 31.77417; 35.17556
TypeIsrael's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust
Visitorsabout 925,000 (2017),[1] 800,000 (2016 and 2015)[2][3]

Yad Vashem (Hebrew: יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a memorial and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. It is dedicated to preserving the memory of the Jews who were murdered; echoing the stories of the survivors; honoring Jews who fought against their Nazi oppressors and gentiles who selflessly aided Jews in need; and researching the phenomenon of the Holocaust in particular and genocide in general, with the aim of avoiding such events in the future.[4] Yad Vashem's vision, as stated on its website, is: "To lead the documentation, research, education and commemoration of the Holocaust, and to convey the chronicles of this singular Jewish and human event to every person in Israel, to the Jewish people, and to every significant and relevant audience worldwide."[5]

Established in 1953, Yad Vashem is located on the Mount of Remembrance, on the western slope of Mount Herzl, a height in western Jerusalem, 804 meters (2,638 ft) above sea level and adjacent to the Jerusalem Forest. The memorial consists of a 180-dunam (18.0 ha; 44.5-acre) complex containing two types of facilities: some dedicated to the scientific study of the Holocaust, and memorials and museums catering to the needs of the larger public. Among the former there are an International Research Institute for Holocaust Research, an archives, a library, a publishing house and the International School for Holocaust Studies; the Holocaust History Museum, memorial sites such as the Children's Memorial and the Hall of Remembrance, the Museum of Holocaust Art, sculptures, outdoor commemorative sites such as the Valley of the Communities, as well as a synagogue.

A core goal of Yad Vashem's founders was to recognize non-Jews who, at personal risk and without a financial or evangelistic motive, chose to save Jews from the ongoing genocide during the Holocaust. Those recognized by Israel as Righteous Among the Nations are honored in a section of Yad Vashem known as the Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations.

Yad Vashem is the second-most-visited Israeli tourist site, after the Western Wall, with approximately one million visitors each year. It charges no admission fee.


The name "Yad Vashem" is taken from a verse in the Book of Isaiah (56:5): "[To] them will I give in my house and within my walls a [memorial] and a [name], better than sons and daughters; I will give them an everlasting [name], that shall not be cut off [from memory]." [6][7] Hebrew: וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם בְּבֵיתִי וּבְחוֹמֹתַי יָד וָשֵׁם, טוֹב מִבָּנִים וּמִבָּנוֹת; שֵׁם עוֹלָם אֶתֶּן לוֹ, אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִכָּרֵת.). Naming the Holocaust memorial "yad vashem" (Hebrew: יָד וָשֵׁם, yād wā-šêm, literally "a memorial and a name") conveys the idea of establishing a national depository for the names of Jewish victims who have no one to carry their name after death. The original verse referred to eunuchs who, although they could not have children, could still live for eternity with the Lord.[8]


The wagon (or cattle car) monument in memory of those deported by rail

The desire to establish a memorial in the historical Jewish homeland for Jewish victims of the Nazi Holocaust originated during World War II, in response to emerging accounts of the mass murder of Jews in Nazi-occupied countries. Yad Vashem was first proposed in September 1942, at a board meeting of the Jewish National Fund, by Mordecai Shenhavi, a member of Kibbutz Mishmar Ha'emek.[8] In August 1945, the plan was discussed in greater detail at a Zionist meeting in London. A provisional board of Zionist leaders was established that included David Remez as chairman, Shlomo Zalman Shragai, Baruch Zuckerman, and Shenhavi. In February 1946, Yad Vashem opened an office in Jerusalem and a branch office in Tel Aviv, and in June that year convened its first plenary session. In July 1947, the First Conference on Holocaust Research was held at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. However, the outbreak of the 1947–1949 Palestine war brought operations to a standstill for two years.

On 19 August 1953, the Knesset, Israel's Parliament, unanimously passed the Yad Vashem Law, establishing the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, the aim of which was "the commemoration in the Homeland of all those members of the Jewish people who gave their lives, or rose up and fought the Nazi enemy and its collaborators," and to set up "a memorial to them, and to the communities, organizations and institutions that were destroyed because they belonged to the Jewish people."[9]

Valley of the (Destroyed) Communities

On 29 July 1954, the cornerstone for the Yad Vashem building was laid on a hill in western Jerusalem, to be known as the Mount of Remembrance (Hebrew: Har HaZikaron); the organization had already begun projects to collect the names of individuals killed in the Holocaust; acquire Holocaust documentation and personal testimonies of survivors for the Archives and Library; and develop research and publications. The memorial and museum opened to the public in 1957.[10][11]

The location of Yad Vashem on the western side of Mount Herzl - an area devoid of weighty historical associations, distinct from the Chamber of the Holocaust, founded in 1948 on Mount Zion[12][13] - was chosen because it was far from the Jerusalem city center, and the founders of the memorial site didn't want to erect a grim, sorrowful memorial, amidst population concentration. The conceptual connection of "From Holocaust to Rebirth" was made only with hindsight: Only in 2003 the Connecting Path between Yad Vashem and the National Cemetery in Mount Herzl was created and paved.[14][15] The "Valley of the Communities" monument at Yad Vashem commemorates over 5,000 Jewish communities destroyed or damaged during the Holocaust, the names of which are engraved on its towering walls. The position of Yad Vashem is that the Holocaust is incomparable to any other calamity previously inflicted on the Jewish people, and therefore the Holocaust cannot be regarded as a continuation of the death and destruction that plagued Jewish communities over the centuries, but rather as a unique phase in history, an unprecedented endeavor to totally annihilate the Jewish people.[16][17][18][19]

In 1982, Yad Vashem sponsored the International Conference on Holocaust and Genocide, which included six presentations on the Armenian genocide. It later withdrew from the conference after threats by the Turkish government that Jewish lives would be put in danger if the conference went ahead.[20][21][22]

On 15 March 2005, a new Museum complex four times larger than the old one opened at Yad Vashem.[23] It included the Holocaust History Museum with a new Hall of Names, a Museum of Holocaust Art, an Exhibitions Pavilion, a Learning Center and a Visual Center.[24][25] The new Yad Vashem museum was designed by Israeli-Canadian architect Moshe Safdie, replacing the previous 30-year-old exhibition.[26] It was the culmination of a $100 million decade-long expansion project.[27]


In November 2008, Rabbi Yisrael Meir Lau was appointed chairman of Yad Vashem's council, replacing Tommy Lapid.[28] The vice chairman of the council is Moshe Kantor.[29] Yitzhak Arad was vice chairman until his death on May 6, 2021.[30] Elie Wiesel was vice chairman of the council until his death on 2 July 2016.[31]

Yitzhak Arad served as the chairman of the directorate from 1972 to 1993. He was succeeded by Avner Shalev, who served as chairman until February 2021.[32] Shalev was succeeded as chairman by Dani Dayan in August 2021.[33]

The members of the Yad Vashem directorate are Yossi Ahimeir, Daniel Atar, Michal Cohen, Avraham Duvdevani, Boleslaw (Bolek) Goldman, Vera H. Golovensky, Shlomit Kasirer, Yossi Katribas, Yehiel Leket, Dalit Stauber, Zehava Tanne, Shoshana Weinshall, and Dudi Zilbershlag.[34] Former deceased members were Matityahu Drobles, Moshe Ha-Elion and Baruch Shub.

The CEO is Tzvika Fayirizen.[35] The Director of the International Institute for Holocaust Research is Dr. Iael Nidam-Orvieto.[36] The chair for Holocaust studies is Dan Michman. Prof. Yehuda Bauer[37] and Prof. Dina Porat are Senior Academic Advisors.[38] Prof. Porat also served as Chief Historian between the years 2011-2022.[34]


The aims of Yad Vashem are education, research and documentation, and commemoration.[39] Yad Vashem organizes professional development courses for educators both in Israel and throughout the world; develops age-appropriate study programs, curricula, and educational materials for Israeli and foreign schools in order to teach students of all ages about the Holocaust; holds exhibitions about the Holocaust; collects the names of Holocaust victims;[40] collects photos, documents, and personal artifacts; and collects Pages of Testimony memorializing victims of the Holocaust.[41] Yad Vashem seeks to preserve the memory and names of the six million Jews murdered during the Holocaust, and the numerous Jewish communities destroyed during that time. It holds ceremonies of remembrance and commemoration; supports Holocaust research projects; develops and coordinates symposia, workshops, and international conferences; and publishes research, memoirs, documents, albums, and diaries related to the Holocaust.[42] Yad Vashem also honors non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust.

The International Institute for Holocaust Studies at Yad Vashem, founded in 1993, offers guides and seminars for students, teachers, and educators, and develops pedagogic tools for use in the classroom. Yad Vashem trains thousands domestic and foreign teachers every year. [43][44][45]

Yad Vashem operates a web site in several languages, including English,[46] German,[47] Hebrew,[48] Persian,[49] French,[50] Russian,[51] Spanish[52] and Arabic.[53] In 2013 Yad Vashem launched an online campaign in Arabic, promoting Yad Vashem's website. The campaign reached over 2.4 million Arabic speakers from around the globe, and the traffic to Yad Vashem's website was tripled.[54]

The institution's policy is that the Holocaust "cannot be compared to any other event". In 2009 Yad Vashem fired a docent for comparing the trauma Jews suffered in the Holocaust to the trauma Palestinians suffered during 1947–1949 Palestine war, including the Deir Yassin massacre.[55]

Yad Vashem Studies

Yad Vashem Studies is a peer-reviewed semi-annual scholarly journal on the Holocaust. Published since 1957, it appears in both English and Hebrew editions.[56]


View of Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum
Exterior of the new Holocaust History Museum

Yad Vashem building on the Mount of Remembrance was inaugurated in 1957. Its first exhibits, opened on 1958, focused on documentation of the Holocaust. The second exhibition, opened in 1959, presented paintings from the Holocaust Ghettos and camps.[57][58]

In 1993, planning began for a larger, more technologically advanced museum to replace the old one. The new building, designed by Canadian-Israeli architect Moshe Safdie, consists of a long corridor connected to 10 exhibition halls, each dedicated to a different chapter of the Holocaust. The museum combines the personal stories of 90 Holocaust victims and survivors and presents approximately 2,500 personal items including artwork and letters donated by survivors and others. The old historical displays revolving around anti-Semitism and the rise of Nazism have been replaced by exhibits that focus on the personal stories of Jews killed in the Holocaust. According to Avner Shalev, the museum's curator and chairman, a visit to the new museum revolves around "looking into the eyes of the individuals. There weren't six million victims, there were six million individual murders."[58]

The new museum was dedicated on 15 March 2005 in the presence of leaders from 40 states and then Secretary General of the UN Kofi Annan. President of Israel Moshe Katzav said that Yad Vashem serves as "an important signpost to all of humankind, a signpost that warns how short the distance is between hatred and murder, between racism and genocide".[59]

In April 2019, Yad Vashem started a new collection center to house and conserve millions of artifacts from the Holocaust.[60][61]


Prism skylight

The first architect involved in the design of Yad Vashem was Munio Weinraub, who worked on the project from 1943 till the 1960s, together with his architectural partner Al Mansfield.[62] He was approached for this purpose by Mordechai Shenhavi, the initiator and first director of the institution.[62] Weinraub's plans were not realised as a whole, but some of his ideas are visible in Yad Vashem today.[62]

The new Holocaust History Museum, designed by Moshe Safdie, is shaped like a triangular concrete prism that cuts through the landscape, illuminated by a 200-meter-long (656 ft) skylight. Visitors follow a preset route that takes them through underground galleries that branch off from the main hall.[27] Safdie is also the architect behind the Children's Memorial and the Deportees (cattle-car) Memorial.

The gates are the work of the sculptor David Palombo (1920–1966).

Hall of Names

The Hall of Names containing Pages of Testimony commemorating the millions of Jews who were murdered during the Holocaust

The Hall of Names is a memorial to the six million Jews who were murdered in the Holocaust. The main hall is composed of two cones: one ten meters high, with a reciprocal well-like cone excavated into the underground rock, its base filled with water. On the upper cone is a display featuring 600 photographs of Holocaust victims and fragments of Pages of Testimony. These are reflected in the water at the bottom of the lower cone, commemorating those victims whose names remain unknown. Surrounding the platform is the circular repository, housing the approximately 2.7 million Pages of Testimony collected to date,[63] with empty spaces for those yet to be submitted.

Since the 1950s, Yad Vashem has collected approximately 110,000 audio, video, and written testimonies by Holocaust survivors. As the survivors age, the program has expanded to visiting survivors in their homes, to tape interviews. Adjoining the hall is a study area with a computerized data bank where visitors can do online searches for the names of Holocaust victims.


The Archive is the oldest department of Yad Vashem. Before presenting an exhibition, Yad Vashem collects items. The best known of these are the historical photographs, as well as the Pages of Testimonies collected from survivors. The latter is a database of personal information about those who survived and those who were murdered in the Holocaust. Yad Vashem has also acquired access to the database of the International Tracing Service of Bad Arolsen of the International Committee of the Red Cross, and these two databases complement each other for research purposes.

Righteous Among the Nations

Tree, memorial honoring Irena Sendler (Polish social worker who smuggled more than 2,500 Jewish children out of the Warsaw Ghetto)[64]
Janusz Korczak and the children, memorial
Memorial to the Jewish children murdered by the Nazis

One of Yad Vashem's tasks is to honor non-Jews who risked their lives, liberty, or positions to save Jews during the Holocaust. To this end, a special independent commission, headed by a retired Supreme Court justice, was established. The commission members, including historians, public figures, lawyers, and Holocaust survivors, examine and evaluate each case according to a well-defined set of criteria and regulations. The Righteous receive a certificate of honor and a medal, and their names are commemorated in the Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations,[65] on the Mount of Remembrance, Yad Vashem. This is an ongoing project that will continue for as long as there are valid requests, substantiated by testimonies or documentation. Five hundred and fifty-five individuals were recognized during 2011, and as of 2021, more than 27,921 individuals have been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.[66]

Yad Vashem's declared policy is not to provide meaningful recognition, even in a possible new category, to Jews who rescued Jews, regardless of the number of people their activism saved. The stated reason is that Jews had an obligation to save fellow Jews and do not deserve recognition.[67][68]

Art gallery

Yad Vashem houses the world's largest collection of artwork produced by Jews and other victims of Nazi occupation in 1933–1945. The Yad Vashem Art Department supervises a 10,000-piece collection, adding 300 pieces a year, most of them donated by survivors' families or discovered in attics.[69] Included in the collection are works by Alexander Bogen, Alice Lok Cahana, Samuel Bak, and Felix Nussbaum.


  • The monument to the heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising by Nathan Rapoport, a version of the 1948 Monument to the Ghetto Heroes from Warsaw.
  • Janusz Korczak and the Children, memorial to the educator and the children he refused to leave
  • Memorial to the Jewish children murdered in the Holocaust
  • The Memorial to the Deportees, aka "train monument", in memory of the Jews taken to the extermination camps by cattle cars
  • Valley of the (Destroyed) Communities, in memory of the Jewish communities of Europe which ceased to exist after the Holocaust

Prizes awarded by Yad Vashem

Yad Vashem awards the following book prizes:

Awards bestowed upon Yad Vashem

  • In 1973, the Pinkas HaKehillot (Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities) project of Yad Vashem was awarded the Israel Prize, for its special contribution to society and the State.[75]
  • In 2003, Yad Vashem was awarded the Israel Prize, for lifetime achievement and its special contribution to society and the State.[76][77]
  • In September 2007, Yad Vashem received the Prince of Asturias Award for Concord.[78] The Prince of Asturias Awards are presented in eight categories. The Award for Concord is bestowed upon a person, persons, or institution whose work has made an exemplary and outstanding contribution to mutual understanding and peaceful coexistence among men, to the struggle against injustice or ignorance, to the defense of freedom, or whose work has widened the horizons of knowledge or has been outstanding in protecting and preserving mankind's heritage.
  • On 25 October 2007, Yad Vashem Chairman Avner Shalev was awarded the Légion d'honneur for his "extraordinary work on behalf of Holocaust remembrance worldwide." French President Nicolas Sarkozy presented Shalev with the award in a special ceremony at the Élysée Palace.
    • In 2011, Shalev received the City of Jerusalem's Patron of Jerusalem Award in recognition of his work in the city.[79]

Notable visitors

Heads of state


Prime Ministers (heads of government)


UN Secretary-Generals

Religious figures


See also


  1. ^ Highlights, Yad vashem, 2017.
  2. ^ Highlights, Yad vashem, 2016
  3. ^ Highlights, Yad vashem, 2015.
  4. ^ "What Is Yad Vashem". yadvashem.org. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  5. ^ Vision and Mission of Yad Vashem, Yad Vashem website
  6. ^ The Holy Scriptures: A New Translation. Jewish Publication Society. 1917.
  7. ^ Emendations based on Ibn Ezra and Metzudat David, as quoted by sefaria.org, and on modern usage, c.f. Kennedy Memorial יָד קֶנַדִי.
  8. ^ a b Margalit, Avishai (2002). The Ethics of Memory. Harvard University Press. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  9. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2008). Israel: A History (rev. & upd. ed.). New York: Harper Perennial. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-68812363-5.
  10. ^ Silberklang, David (Fall 2003). "More Than a Memorial: The Evolution of Yad Vashem" (PDF). Yad Vashem Quarterly Magazine. Jerusalem, IL: Yad Vashem (Special Commemorative ed): 6–7.
  11. ^ Naor, Mordechai (1998). "1954". The Twentieth Century in Eretz Israel. Translated by Krausz, Judith. Cologne, DE: Konenmann Verlagsgesellschaft. pp. 317–18. ISBN 978-3-89508595-6.
  12. ^ Edrei, Arye (7 June 2007). "Holocaust Memorial". In Doron Mendels (ed.). On Memory: An Interdisciplinary Approach. p. 43. ISBN 978-3-03911-064-3.
  13. ^ Singer, Yehudit (6 May 2008). "60 Years of Commemorating the Holocaust". Shiur Times: 36–37.
  14. ^ Jackie Feldman, "Between Yad Vashem and Mt. Herzl: Changing Inscriptions of Sacrifice on Jerusalem’s 'Mountain of Memory'", in Anthropological Quarterly, p. 1155. The Connecting Path is called in the article "The Linking Path".
  15. ^ Moshe Oren Website
  16. ^ FAQs. The Holocaust Resource Center - Question 2
  17. ^ Amdur Sack, Sallyann (1995). A guide to Jewish genealogical research in Israel. Avotaynu. p. 67. ISBN 0-96263737-8.
  18. ^ Jacobs, Daniel; Eber, Shirley; Silvani, Francesca (1998). Israel and the Palestinian Territories: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. p. 371. ISBN 1-85828248-9.
  19. ^ Stauber, Roni (2007). The Holocaust in Israeli Public Debate in the 1950s: Ideology and memory. Vallentine Mitchell. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-85303723-1.
  20. ^ Auron, Yair (2003). "The Israeli Academy and the Armenian Genocide". The Banality of Denial: Israel and the Armenian Genocide. Rutgers University Press. pp. 217–225. ISBN 0-7658-0834-X.
  21. ^ Baer, Marc D. (2020). Sultanic Saviors and Tolerant Turks: Writing Ottoman Jewish History, Denying the Armenian Genocide. Indiana University Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-0-253-04542-3.
  22. ^ Ben Aharon, Eldad (2015). "A Unique Denial: Israel's Foreign Policy and the Armenian Genocide". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 42 (4): 638–654. doi:10.1080/13530194.2015.1043514. S2CID 218602513.
  23. ^ The new Holocaust History Museum at Yad Vashem - FACTS & FIGURES, Yad Vashem press releases, 15 March 2005
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  25. ^ "The new Holocaust History Museum at Yad Vashem – Facts & Figures" (press release). Yad Vashem. 15 March 2005.
  26. ^ Lefkovits, Etgar. "Jerusalem: Yad Vashem". Highbeam. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  27. ^ a b Ser, Sam. "New Yad Vashem museum to emphasize 'human story'". Jerusalem Post/Highbeam.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  28. ^ "Rabbi Israel Meir Lau Appointed Chairman of the Yad Vashem Council". .yadvashem.org. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  29. ^ Moshe Kantor on Yad Vashem website
  30. ^ Yad Vashem Mourns the Passing of Renowned Holocaust Survivor, Historian and Former Yad Vashem Chairman, Dr. Yitzhak Arad (1926-2021), on Yad Vashem website
  31. ^ Yad Vashem mourns the loss of a dear friend and colleague, Holocaust survivor Professor Elie Wiesel, on Yad Vashem website
  32. ^ "Three Decades Dedicated to Shoah Commemoration". yadvashem.org. 22 August 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
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  34. ^ a b Yad Vashem Magazine. Volume 80. June 2016
  35. ^ Tzvika Fayirizen Appointed as Director General of Yad Vashem, Yad Vashem website, 21 October 2021
  36. ^ About Dr. Iael Nidam-Orvieto, Yad Vashem website
  37. ^ Professor Yehuda Bauer on Yad Vashem website
  38. ^ Professor Dina Porat on Yad Vashem website
  39. ^ "The International School for Holocaust Studies". .yadvashem.org. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  40. ^ About: The Central Database of Shoah Victims Names Archived 18 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ The Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names, on Yad Vashem website
  42. ^ Our Memory of the Past and for the Future: Based on the Proceedings of an International Forum in Jerusalem, Israel, 15–21 September 2003. Council of Europe. 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  43. ^ International Seminars at Yad Vashem
  44. ^ About the International School for Holocaust Studies
  45. ^ "Remembering the Holocaust: Bearing witness ever more". Economist.com. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  46. ^ Yad Vashem website in English
  47. ^ Yad Vashem website in German
  48. ^ Yad Vashem website in Hebrew
  49. ^ Yad Vashem website in Persian
  50. ^ Yad Vashem website in French
  51. ^ Yad Vashem website in Russian
  52. ^ Yad Vashem website in Spanish
  53. ^ Yad Vashem website in Arabic
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  56. ^ "Yad Vashem Studies". The International Institute for Holocaust Research. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  57. ^ Bella Gutterman, Yad Vashem: 60 years of remembrance, documentation, research, and education - the chapter regarding the 1950's, p. 93 (Yad Vashem, 2013, in Hebrew)
  58. ^ a b Chris McGreal (15 March 2005). "'This is ours and ours alone'". Guardian. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  59. ^ Kofi Annan commented at the opening, "The number of Holocaust survivors who are still with us is dwindling fast. Our children are growing up just as rapidly. They are beginning to ask their first questions about injustice. What will we tell them? Will we say, 'That's just the way the world is'? Or will we say instead, 'We are trying to change things—to find a better way'? Let this museum stand as a testimony that we are striving for a better way. Let Yad Vashem inspire us to keep striving, as long as the darkest dark stalks the face of the earth." Facing the Consequences of Dividing Israel Archived 6 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ About the new collection center, Yad Vashem website
  61. ^ Amanda Borschel-Dan. "Yad Vashem to break ground on new artifacts center on Holocaust Remembrance Day". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  62. ^ a b c Esther Zandberg (31 January 2014). "Holocaust Memorial Yad Vashem Was Already Being Planned in 1942". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  63. ^ What are Pages of Testimony, on Yad Vashem website
  64. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Irena Sendler (1910–2008)
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  67. ^ https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/Why-wont-Yad-Vashem-honor-Jewish-rescuers – by Dr. Mordecai Paldiel who directed the Yad Vashem Righteous department for decades
  68. ^ https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Yad-Vashem-and-Jewish-rescuers-of-Jews-472621 – by Dr. Mordecai Paldiel
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  70. ^ Yad Vashem International Book Prize for Holocaust Research in memory of Abraham Meir Schwartzbaum, Holocaust survivor, and his family members murdered in the Holocaust
  71. ^ The Yad Vashem International Book Prize for Holocaust Research 2022
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  76. ^ "Israel Prize Official Site (in Hebrew) – Recipient's C.V. (2003)".
  77. ^ "Israel Prize Official Site (in Hebrew)- Judges' Considerations for Grant of Prize to Recipient in 2003".
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