Canaanite and Aramaic inscriptions

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The Sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II was the first of this type of inscription found anywhere in the Levant (modern Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Lebanon and Syria).[1][2]

The Canaanite and Aramaic inscriptions, also known as Northwest Semitic inscriptions,[3] are the primary extra-Biblical source for understanding of the society and history of the ancient Phoenicians, Hebrews and Arameans. Semitic inscriptions may occur on stone slabs, pottery ostraca, ornaments, and range from simple names to full texts.[4][5][6][7] The older inscriptions form a CanaaniteAramaic dialect continuum, exemplified by writings which scholars have struggled to fit into either category, such as the Stele of Zakkur and the Deir Alla Inscription.[8][9][10][11]

The Northwest Semitic languages are a language group that contains the Aramaic language, as well as the Canaanite languages including Phoenician and Hebrew.


This article lists the notable inscriptions written in Canaanite (previously known as "Phoenician" and today split into Phoenician-proper, paleo-Hebrew, Punic etc), as well as Old Aramaic. These inscriptions share an alphabet, as shown in these 1903 comparison tables.

The old Aramaic period (850 to 612 BC) saw the production and dispersal of inscriptions due to the rise of the Arameans as a major force in Ancient Near East. Their language was adopted as an international language of diplomacy, particularly during the late stages of the Neo-Assyrian Empire as well as the spread of Aramaic speakers from Egypt to Mesopotamia.[12] The first known Aramaic inscription was the Carpentras Stela, found in southern France in 1704; it was considered to be Phoenician text at the time.[13][14]

Only 10,000 inscriptions in Phoenician-Punic, a Canaanite language, are known,[7][15] such that "Phoenician probably remains the worst transmitted and least known of all Semitic languages."[16] The only other substantial source for Phoenician-Punic are the excerpts in Poenulus, a play written by the Roman writer Plautus (see Punic language § Example for an analysis).[7] Within the corpus of inscriptions only 668 words have been attested, including 321 hapax legomena (words only attested a single time), per Wolfgang Röllig's analysis in 1983.[17] This compares to the Bible's 7000–8000 words and 1500 hapax legomena, in Biblical Hebrew.[17][18] The first published Phoenician-Punic inscription was from the Cippi of Melqart, found in 1694 in Malta;[19] the first published such inscription from the Phoenician "homeland" was the Sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II published in 1855.[1][2]

Fewer than 2,000 inscriptions in Ancient Hebrew, another Canaanite language, are known, of which the vast majority comprise just a single letter or word.[20][21] The first detailed Ancient Hebrew inscription published was the Royal Steward inscription, found in 1870.[22][23]

List of notable inscriptions[edit]

The inscriptions written in ancient Northwest Semitic script (Canaanite and Aramaic) have been catalogued into multiple corpora (i.e., lists) over the last two centuries. The primary corpora to have been produced are as follows:

The inscriptions listed below include those which are mentioned in multiple editions of the corpora above (the numbers in the concordance column cross-refer to the works above), as well as newer inscriptions which have been published since the corpora above were published (references provided individually).

Name Image Discovered Date Location found Current Location Concordance
Ahiram Sarcophagus An inscription 1923 c.1000 BCE Byblos National Museum of Beirut 1 III 4
Byblos Necropolis graffito An inscription 1923 c.1000 BCE Byblos in situ 2 III 5
Byblos bronze spatulas An inscription 1926–1932 1000–900 BCE Byblos National Museum of Beirut 3 III 1
Byblos clay cone inscriptions An inscription 1950 1100–1000 BCE Byblos National Museum of Beirut III 2,3
Yehimilk inscription An inscription 1930 c.960/950 BCE Byblos Byblos Castle 4 III 6
Abiba’l inscription An inscription 1895 c.940/930 BCE Byblos Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin 5 R 505 III 7
Osorkon Bust An inscription 1881 c.920 BC Byblos Louvre 6 III 8
Safatba'al inscription An inscription 1936 c.900 BCE Byblos National Museum of Beirut 7 III 9
Abda sherd An inscription 1926–1932 c.900 BCE Byblos 8 III 10
Son of Safatba'al inscription An inscription 1926–1932 c.500/475 BCE Byblos National Museum of Beirut 9
Yehawmilk Stele An inscription 1869 c.450/425 BCE Byblos Louvre 10 I 1 416 5 3 III 25
Batnoam sarcophagus An inscription 1926–1932 c.450–425 BCE Byblos National Museum of Beirut 11 III 26
Byblos altar inscription An inscription 1923 200–100 BCE Byblos National Museum of Beirut 12
Byblos marble inscription An inscription 1957 500 BCE Byblos National Museum of Beirut 280
Tabnit sarcophagus An inscription 1887 500 BC Sidon Museum of the Ancient Orient 13 R 1202 417,1 6 4 III 27
Sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II An inscription 1855 c. 525 BC Sidon Louvre 14 I 3, R 1506 417,2 7 5 III 28
Bodashtart inscriptions An inscription 1858, 1900-2 300s BC Sidon Louvre and Museum of the Ancient Orient 15–16 I 4, R 766, 767 8–10 6, Appendix I
Abdmiskar cippus An inscription 1890 300 BCE Sidon Louvre 282 R 930 418,3 11 7
Eshmun inscription An inscription 1901 Sidon Museum of the Ancient Orient R 297
KAI 283 Sidon 283 [29]
Tyre Cistern inscription An inscription 1885 Tyre Louvre 418,c 8
Throne of Astarte An inscription 1907 Tyre Louvre and National Museum of Beirut 17 R 800 III 30
Abdbaal the centurion inscription near Tyre Louvre [30]
KAI 284 Tyre 284 [31]
Baalshamin inscription An inscription 1861 132 BC Umm al-Amad Louvre 18 I 7 418,d 12 9 [32]
Phoenician sun dial An inscription 1860–1945 Umm al-Amad National Museum of Beirut I 9
Umm al-Amad votive inscription An inscription 1861 Umm al-Amad, Lebanon Louvre I 8 419,2 13
Phoenician Adoration steles An inscription 1900 Umm al-Amad, Lebanon Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Louvre R 250, R 307 14–15
Phoenician Sphinx inscription An inscription 1962 Umm al-Amad National Museum of Beirut III 32
El-Osiris inscription Umm al-Amad Louvre R 504
Masub inscription An inscription 1885 222 BC Masub Louvre 19 R 1205 419e 16 10 III 31
Arwad bilingual An inscription 1916 Arwad Louvre
Tortosa bomos inscription Tortosa, Syria Louvre R 56
Phoenician arrowheads An inscription 1926 onwards 11th century BCE various various 20–22 III p. 6
Hasanbeyli inscription An inscription 1894 Hasanbeyli Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin 23
Kilamuwa Stela An inscription 1893 c. 850/825 BCE Sam'al Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin 24 III 13
Kilamuwa scepter An inscription 1943 Sam'al 25 III 14
Karatepe bilingual An inscription 1946 c. 750 BCE Karatepe Karatepe-Aslantaş Open-Air Museum 26 III 15
İvriz inscription 1986 75 meter upstream from the İvriz relief[33] unpublished [34]
Arslan Tash amulets An inscription 1933 Arslan Tash National Museum of Aleppo 27 III 23–24
Carchemish Phoenician inscription An inscription 1950 Carchemish British Museum 28
Ur Box inscription An inscription 1927 Ur British Museum 29 III 20
Honeyman inscription An inscription 1939 900 BCE Cyprus Cyprus Museum 30 III 12
Baal Lebanon inscription An inscription 1877 700s BC Cyprus Cabinet des Médailles 31 I 5 419 17 11 III 17
Phoenician metal bowls An inscription 1849 onwards 700s BC Nimrud, Cyprus, Italy and others various I 164, II 46–49 III 19
Kition Resheph pillars An inscription 1860 341 BC Cyprus Louvre 32 I 10, 88 420,1 18, 30 12, 23
Pococke Kition inscriptions An inscription 1738 300s BC Cyprus Ashmolean Museum 33, 35 I 11, 46, 57–85 420,4 19, 23, 27, 28 13, 16, 18, 19 III 35
Kition Necropolis Phoenician inscriptions An inscription 1894 300s BC Cyprus British Museum, Cyprus Museum, Ashmolean Museum 34 R 1206 420,3 22 21-22
Pierides Kition inscriptions An inscription 1881 Cyprus Louvre 12, 13, 14, 50–53 20, 25–26 14
Eshmun obelisk An inscription 1881 Cyprus British Museum I 44 420,2 21 15
Kellia inscription An inscription 1844 Cyprus 36 I 47 420,5 24 17
Kition Tariffs An inscription 1879 300s BC Cyprus British Museum 37 I 86A–B, 87 29 20 III 33
Idalion bilingual and Idalion Temple inscriptions An inscription 1869 391–254 BC Cyprus British Museum 38–40 I 89–94 421,1–3 31–33 24–27 III 34
Tamassos bilinguals An inscription 1885 363 BC Cyprus British Museum 41 R 1212–1213 421c 34 30
Anat Athena bilingual An inscription 1850 312 BCE Cyprus in situ 42 I 95, R 1515 422,1 35 28
Larnakas tis Lapithou pedestal inscription An inscription 1893 275 BCE Cyprus Louvre 43 R 1211 422,2 36 29 III 36
Rhodes Phoenician-Greek bilingual inscriptions An inscription 1914–68 300–200 BCE Rhodes Archaeological Museum of Rhodes 44–45 III 39
Nora Stone An inscription 1773 Sardinia Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Cagliari 46 I 144 427c 60 41 III 11 [35]
Cippi of Melqart An inscription 1694 100s BC Malta Louvre and National Museum of Archaeology, Malta 47 I 122 425f 53 36 [35]
Banobal stele An inscription 1900 Memphis Egyptian Museum 48 R 1, 235 37
Abydos graffiti An set of inscriptions 1868 Abydos in situ 49 I 99–110, R 1302ff. 423a 38-42 31
Abu Simbel Phoenician graffiti An set of inscriptions 1842 Abu Simbel in situ I 111-113 423b 43
Phoenician papyrus letters An inscription 1937–1940 Cairo and Saqqara Egyptian Museum 50–51
Phoenician Harpocrates statues An inscription 1770, 1963 unknown National Archaeological Museum (Madrid) and British Museum 52 R 1507 424 44 III 37, 38
Athenian Greek-Phoenician inscriptions An inscription 1795 etc. Athens, Piraeus British Museum, Louvre, National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Archaeological Museum of Piraeus 53–60 I 115–120, R 388, 1215 424,1–3, 425,1–5 45–52 32–35 III 40–41
Mdina steles An inscription 1816 Malta National Museum of Archaeology, Malta 61 I 123A–B 426,2 54 37 III 21,22 [35]
Benhisa inscription An inscription 1761 Malta Cabinet des Médailles I 124 426,3 55 [35]
Gozo stele An inscription 1855 Malta Gozo Museum of Archaeology 62 I 132 426,4 56 38 [35]
Lilybaeum stele An inscription 1882 Sicily Regional Archeological Museum Antonio Salinas 63 I 138 57 [35]
Bashamem inscription An inscription 1877 200 BC Sardinia Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Cagliari 64 I 139 427a 58 39 [35]
Giardino Birocchi inscription An inscription 1912 Sardinia Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Cagliari 65 [35]
Pauli Gerrei trilingual inscription An inscription 1861 Sardinia Turin Archaeology Museum 66 I 143 427b 59 40 [35]
Tharros Punic inscriptions An inscription 1870 Sardinia Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Cagliari, Museo nazionale archeologico ed etnografico G. A. Sanna 67 I 158 62 [35]
Olbia pedestal An inscription 1911 Sardinia 68 R 1216 [35]
Marseille Tariff An inscription 1845 300s BC Marseille Musée d'archéologie méditerranéenne 69 I 165 428 63 42 [35]
Avignon Punic inscription An inscription 1897 Avignon Musée d'archéologie méditerranéenne 70 R 360 64 III 18 [35]
Douïmès medallion An inscription 1894 700 BCE Carthage Carthage National Museum 73 I 6057, R 5 429,1 70
Carthage Tariff An inscription 1858 300 BC Carthage British Museum 74 I 167 429b 66 43
1920 Carthage 75 I 3916
Carthage Festival Offering inscription An inscription 1872 300 BC Carthage Turin Archaeology Museum 76 I 166 430,3 67 44 [36]
1906 Carthage 77 I 3921
Mitsri genealogy inscription An inscription 1922 300s BCE Carthage 78 I 3778
KNMY's child sacrifice(?) inscription An inscription 1922 Carthage 79 I 3785
An inscription 1871 Carthage British Museum 80 I 175 430,4 68 46
An inscription 1898 200 BC Carthage Carthage National Museum 81 I 3914 69 45
Persephone Punic stele An inscription 1881 Carthage Turin Archaeology Museum 82 I 176 71 [36]
An inscription 1873 Carthage 83 I 177 430,6 72 47
Son of Baalshillek marble base An inscription 1858 Carthage British Museum 84 I 178 430,7 73
Carthaginian tombstones Inscription sketches 1817 onwards Carthage Carthage National Museum, others 85 various 74
Pricot de Sainte-Marie steles An inscription 1874–75 Carthage Bibliothèque nationale de France, Louvre 86–88 I 264, 221, 1885 76, 80, 83
Punic Tabella Defixionis An inscription 1899 200 BC Carthage Carthage National Museum 89 I 6068, R 18, 1590 85 50
An inscription 1904 Carthage Carthage National Museum 90 I 5953, R 537 87
1899 Carthage Carthage National Museum 91 I 5991, R 1227 88
Sibbolet funeral inscription An inscription 1902 Carthage Carthage National Museum 92 I 5948, R 768 89
An inscription 1905 Carthage Carthage National Museum 93 I 5950, R 553 90
An inscription 1907 Carthage 94 I 2992 [37]
1906 Carthage 95 R 786, 1854
1901 Carthage 96 I 5988, R 183, 1600
Hadrumetum Punic inscriptions An inscription 1867, 1946 Sousse Sousse Archaeological Museum, the Louvre and the Maison méditerranéenne des Sciences de l'homme 97–99 432,1–3 91–92
Punic-Libyan bilinguals An inscription 1631 Dougga British Museum 100–101 433,c 93 52
Cirta steles An inscription 1857–61, 1875, 1950 300-100BCE Constantine Musée national Cirta 102–116, 162–164 R 327, 334, 339, 1544 433,1–9 and 434,10–12 94–99 51
El Amrouni mausoleum An inscription 1894 Remada 117 435b 101
Bourgade inscriptions An inscription 1852 Carthage and wider Tunisia 133–135 436,3–12
Thinissut sanctuary inscription An inscription 1908 Bir Bouregba Nabeul Museum 137 R 942, 1858
1900 Bou Arada 140 R 679
Maktar and Mididi inscriptions An inscription 1890s Maktar and Mididi 145–158 R 161–181, 2221 436,11 59a-c
Wilmanns Neopunic inscriptions An inscription 1873-74 Tunisia Louvre and Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin 139, 142, 159 435,2, 437a 53, 55
Cherchell Neopunic inscriptions An inscription 1875, 1882 Cherchell Louvre 161 439,2 56–57
Ain Nechma inscriptions An inscription 1843 Guelma Louvre 166–169 437 58
Sant'Antioco bilingual An inscription 1881 Sardinia Museo archeologico comunale Ferruccio Barreca 172 I 149 434,1 100 [35]
Mesha Stele An inscription 1868 Dhiban Louvre 181 415 1 1 I 16
Gezer calendar An inscription 1908 Gezer Museum of the Ancient Orient 182 R 1201 I 1
Samaria Ostraca An inscription 1910 Sebastia Museum of the Ancient Orient 183–188 I 2–3
Nimrud ivory inscriptions An inscription 1845, 1961 Nimrud British Museum I 6
Siloam inscription An inscription 1880 Jerusalem Museum of the Ancient Orient 189 3 2 I 7
Ophel ostracon An inscription 1924 Jerusalem Rockefeller Museum 190 I 9
Royal Steward inscription An inscription 1870 Jerusalem British Museum 191 I 8
Lachish letters An inscription 1935 Tel Lachish British Museum and Israel Museum 192–199 I 12
Yavne-Yam ostracon An inscription 1960 Mesad Hashavyahu Israel Museum 200 I 10
Tel Qasile ostraca An inscription 1945–1946 Tel Qasile Israel Museum I 4
Hazor inscriptions 1956 800s BC Tel Hazor I 5
Wadi Murabba'at papyrus 1952 600s BC Wadi Murabba'at I 11
Arad ostraca An inscription 1960s c.600 BC Tel Arad Bible Lands Museum I 13, II 31
Al Jib jar handles An inscription 1956–1959 700s BC Al Jib Jordan Archaeological Museum and the Penn Museum I 14
Khirbet Beit Lei graffiti An inscription 1961 400s BC Khirbet Beit Lei Israel Museum I 15
Melqart stele An inscription 1939 Bureij National Museum of Aleppo 201 II 1
Stele of Zakkur An inscription 1903 Tell Afis Louvre 202 II 5
Hama graffiti 1931–38 Hama 203–213 II 6 I–V
Hadad Statue An inscription 1890 700s BC Sam'al Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin 214 440-2 61 II 13
Panamuwa II inscription An inscription 1888 730s BC Sam'al Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin 215 442 62 II 14
Bar-Rakib inscriptions An inscription 1891 730s BC Sam'al Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin and Museum of the Ancient Orient 216–221 443, 444 63 II 15–17
Sefire steles An inscription 1930–1956 As-Safira National Museum of Damascus and National Museum of Beirut 222–224, 227 II 8–9, 22
Neirab steles An inscription 1891 600s BC Al-Nayrab Louvre 225–226 445 64–65 II 18–19
Tayma stones An inscription 1878–1884 300s–400s BC Tayma Louvre 228–230 II 113–115 447,1–3 69–70 II 30
Tell Halaf inscription An inscription 1933 Tell Halaf destroyed 231 II 10
Arslan Tash ivory inscription An inscription 1931 Arslan Tash Louvre 232 II 2
Assur ostracon and tablets An inscription 1903–1913 Assur Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin 233-6 II 20
Kesecek Köyü inscription An inscription 1915 Kesecek Köyü Peabody Museum of Natural History 258 II 33
Gözne Boundary Stone An inscription 1907 Gözne 259 II 34
Sardis bilingual inscription An inscription 1912 394 BC Sardis İzmir Archaeological Museum 260
Sarıaydın inscription An inscription 1892 400 BC Sarıaydın in situ 261 446a 68 II 35
Limyra bilingual An inscription 1840 Limyra 262 II 109 446b
Assyrian lion weights An inscription 1845–1860 800–500 BC Nimrud, Abydos (Hellespont) British Museum, Louvre 263 II 1–14, 108 446c 66-67
Farasa bilingual inscription An inscription 1900 In situ 265
Adon Papyrus An inscription 1942 Saqqara Egyptian Museum 266 II 21
Saqqara Aramaic Stele An inscription 1877 482 BC Saqqara destroyed 267 II 122 448a1 71 II 23
Serapeum Offering Table An inscription 1855 400 BC Saqqara Louvre 268 II 123 448a2 72
Carpentras Stela An inscription 1704 Carpentras Bibliothèque Inguimbertine 269 II 141 448b1 75 II 24
Elephantine papyri and ostraca An inscription 1815–1945 300s BC Elephantine various 270–271 II 137–139, 154–155 73–74 II 26, 28
Hermopolis Aramaic papyri An inscription 1936 400s BC Hermopolis Cairo University Archaeological Museum II 27
Abydos Aramaic papyrus An inscription 1964 400s BC unknown National Archaeological Museum of Madrid II 29
Blacas papyri An inscription 1825 Saqqara British Library II 145 76
Turin Aramaic Papyrus An inscription 1823–24 Museo Egizio II 144
Ankh-Hapy stele An inscription 1860 525–404 BCE unknown Vatican Museums 272 II 142 448b2 II 7
Aramaic Inscription of Taxila An inscription 1915 Taxila Taxila Museum 273
Stele of Serapeitis An inscription 1940 Armazi Georgian National Museum 276
Pyrgi Tablets An inscription 1964 Pyrgi National Etruscan Museum 277 III 42
Bahadırlı 278 II 36
Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription An inscription 1958 Chil Zena National Museum of Afghanistan 279
Baalshillem Temple Boy An inscription 1963–1964 Sidon National Museum of Beirut 281 III 29
Sarepta Tanit Inscription An inscription Sarafand 285 [38]
Ekron Royal Dedicatory Inscription An inscription 1996 Tel Miqne Israel Museum 286
Çebel Ires Daǧı inscription An inscription 1980 Çebel Ires Daǧı Alanya Archaeological Museum 287
Kition KAI 288–290 Kition 288–290
Tekke Bowl Inscription (Knossos) 1,000s BCE Crete Heraklion Archaeological Museum (Χ4346) 291 [39][40]
Hellenistic Greek-Phoenician bilingual Kos 292 [41]
Demetrias inscription Demetrias 293
Seville statue of Astarte An inscription 1960–1962 700 BCE Seville Archeological Museum of Seville 294 III 16
Grotta Regina Punic inscriptions Sicily 295 [42][35]
Mozia Punic inscriptions Sicily 296–298 [43][35][44]
Temple of Antas Punic inscriptions Sardinia 299–301 [35][45]
Agrigentum inscription An inscription 1934 406 BCE Carthage 302 I 5510 [46]
Carthage Administration Inscription An inscription 1964 Carthage Carthage National Museum 303
El-Kerak Inscription An inscription 1958 Al-Karak Jordan Archaeological Museum 306 I 17
Amman Citadel Inscription An inscription 1961 Amman Jordan Archaeological Museum 307
Tel Siran inscription An inscription 1972 Amman Jordan Archaeological Museum 308
Hadad-yith'i bilingual inscription An inscription 1979 Tell Fekheriye National Museum of Damascus 309
Tel Dan Stele An inscription 1993 Tel Dan Israel Museum 310
Deir Alla Inscription An inscription 1967 Deir Alla Jordan Archaeological Museum 312
Tell Sheikh Hamad inscriptions 313–314 [47]
Tell Shiukh Fawqani inscription 1996 315 [48]
KAI 316 316 [49][50][51][52]
Aramaic Fugitive Decree 1971 Unknown 317 [53][54]
Daskyleion steles An inscription 1965 Dascylium Museum of the Ancient Orient 318 II 37
Letoon trilingual An inscription 1973 Xanthos Fethiye Museum 319
Bukan inscription 1985 Bukan 320 [55][56]
Çineköy inscription An inscription 1997 Çine, Yüreğir Adana Archaeology Museum [57][58]
Kuttamuwa stele An inscription 2008 Sam'al Gaziantep Archaeology Museum [59]
Nebi Yunis ostraca An inscription 1960s Nebi Yunis (Ashdod) II 32
Tel el Maskhuta silver bowls 1950s Tel el Maskhuta II 25
Luristan Aramaic inscriptions 1964 Luristan II 11–12
Tel Dan bowl 1960s Tel Dan II 4
Ein Gev jar 1961 Ein Gev II 3
Ataruz altar inscriptions 2010 c. 800 BCE Khirbat Ataruz [60]
Ishbaal Inscription An inscription 2012 1020–980 BCE Khirbet Qeiyafa [61]
Khirbet Qeiyafa ostracon An inscription 2009 c. 1000 BCE Khirbet Qeiyafa Israel Museum [62]
Hashub Inscription An inscription 1957 400s BCE Tel Zeton Old Jaffa Museum of Antiquities [63]
Cadiz Phoenician inscription 1961 Instituto Valencia of Don Juan 71 [64]
Ibiza Phoenician inscriptions 1923 Archaeological Museum of Alicante 72 [65]
Tripolitania Punic inscriptions An inscription 1806 Leptis Magna, Breviglieri, other 118–132 R 662 434, B-a
Bithia inscription 1933 Sardinia 173
Sirte inscription 1928 Sirte 180
Hatran Aramaic inscriptions An inscription 1951 Hatra 237–257 [66][67]
Arebsun inscription 1895 Afşin Museum of the Ancient Orient 264 [68]
Lake Sivan inscriptions 1906 Armenia 274–275
KAI 136 (Neopunic) 1955 Tunisia 136
Bur Tlelsa Neopunic inscription 1914 Tunisia 138
Jebel Massoudj Neopunic inscription 1940 Tunisia 141 [69][70]
Henchir Guergour Neopunic inscriptions An inscription 1882 Tunisia 143–144
Guelaât Bou Sbaâ Neopunic inscriptions An inscription 1884 Algeria 165
Djinet Neopunic inscriptions 1952 Algeria 170
Zattara Neopunic inscriptions 1916 Algeria 171
Hazael horse frontlet An inscription 1984 800 BCE Samos Archaeological Museum of Vathi 311
Bactria Aramaic documents An inscription 1993–2002 353–324 BCE Bactria Khalili Collections


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Lehmann, Reinhard G. [in German] (2013). "Wilhelm Gesenius and the Rise of Phoenician Philology" (PDF). Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. Berlin / Boston: De Gruyter. 427: 209–266. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-04-08. Alas, all these were either late or Punic, and came from Cyprus, from the ruins of Kition, from Malta, Sardinia, Athens, and Carthage, but not yet from the Phoenician homeland. The first Phoenician text as such was found as late as 1855, the Eshmunazor sarcophagus inscription from Sidon.
  2. ^ a b Turner, William Wadden (1855-07-03). The Sidon Inscription. p. 259. Its interest is greater both on this account and as being the first inscription properly so-called that has yet been found in Phoenicia proper, which had previously furnished only some coins and an inscribed gem. It is also the longest inscription hitherto discovered, that of Marseilles—which approaches it the nearest in the form of its characters, the purity of its language, and its extent — consisting of but 21 lines and fragments of lines.
  3. ^ Kanaanäische und Aramäische Inschriften. 1961. Seit dem Erscheinen von Mark Lidzbarskis "Handbuch der Nordsemitischen Epigraphik" (1898) und G. A. Cooke's "Text-Book of North-Semitic Inscriptions" (1903) ist es bis zum gegenwärtigen Zeitpunkt nicht wieder unternommen worden, das nordwestsemitische In schriftenmaterial gesammelt und kommentiert herauszugeben, um es Forschern und Stu denten zugänglich zu machen.... Um diesem Desideratum mit Rücksicht auf die Bedürfnisse von Forschung und Lehre abzu helfen, legen wir hiermit unter dem Titel "Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften" (KAI) eine Auswahl aus dem gesamten Bestände der einschlägigen Texte vor {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  4. ^ a b Mark Woolmer (ed.). "Phoenician: A Companion to Ancient Phoenicia". A Companion to Ancient Phoenicia, ed. Mark Woolmer: 4. Altogether, the known Phoenician texts number nearly seven thousand. The majority of these were collected in three volumes constituting the first part of the Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum (CIS), begun in 1867 under the editorial direction of the famous French scholar Ernest Renan (1823–1892), continued by J.-B. Chabot and concluded in 1962 by James G. Février. The CIS corpus includes 176 "Phoenician" inscriptions and 5982 "Punic" inscriptions (see below on these labels).[self-published source?]
  5. ^ Parker, Heather Dana Davis; Rollston, Christopher A. (2019). "Teaching Epigraphy in the Digital Age". In Hamidović, David; Clivaz, Claire; Savant, Sarah Bowen (eds.). Ancient Manuscripts in Digital Culture. pp. 189–216. doi:10.1163/9789004399297_011. ISBN 978-90-04-39929-7. JSTOR 10.1163/j.ctvrxk44t.14. S2CID 182624532. p. 190: Of course, Donner and Röllig's three-volume handbook entitled KAI has been the gold standard for five decades now
  6. ^ Suder, Robert W. (1984). Hebrew Inscriptions: A Classified Bibliography. Susquehanna University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-941664-01-1.
  7. ^ a b c Doak, Brian R. (2019-08-26). The Oxford Handbook of the Phoenician and Punic Mediterranean. Oxford University Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-19-049934-1. Most estimates place it at around ten thousand texts. Texts that are either formulaic or extremely short constitute the vast majority of the evidence.
  8. ^ Kaufman, Stephen A. (1986). "The Pitfalls of Typology: On the Early History of the Alphabet". Hebrew Union College Annual. 57: 1–14. JSTOR 23507690.
  9. ^ McCarter Jr., P. Kyle (1 January 1991). "The Dialect of the Deir Alla Texts". In Jacob Hoftijzer and Gerrit Van der Kooij (ed.). The Balaam Text from Deir ʻAlla Re-evaluated: Proceedings of the International Symposium Held at Leiden, 21–24 August 1989. BRILL. pp. 87–. ISBN 90-04-09317-6. It may be appropriate to observe at this point that students of the Northwest Semitic languages seem to be becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the usefulness of the Canaanite-Aramaic distinction for categorizing features found in texts from the Persian Period and earlier. A careful reevaluation of the binary organization of the Northwest Semitic family seems now to be underway. The study of the Deir 'Alla texts is one of the principal things prompting this reevaluation, and this may be counted as one of the very positive results of our work on these texts… the evidence of the Zakkur inscription is crucial, because it shows that the breakdown is not along Aramaic-Canaanite lines. Instead, the Deir 'Alla dialect sides with Hebrew, Moabite, and the language spoken by Zakkur (the dialect of Hamath or neighboring Lu'ath) against Phoenician and the majority of Old Aramaic dialects.
  10. ^ KAUFMAN, STEPHEN A. (1985). "המיון של הדיאלקטים השמיים הצפוניים-מערביים מתקופת המקרא" [THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE NORTH WEST SEMITIC DIALECTS OF THE BIBLICAL PERIOD AND SOME IMPLICATIONS THEREOF]. Proceedings of the World Congress of Jewish Studies. ט: 41–57. JSTOR 23529398. The very term "Canaanite" is meaningful only vis-a-vis something else – i.e. Aramaic, and, as we shall see, each new epigraphic discovery of the early first millennium seems to contribute further evidence that the division between Canaanite and Aramaic cannot be traced back any distance into the second millennium and that the term "Canaanite," in a linguistic as opposed to an ethnic sense, is irrelevant for the Late Bronze Age. Ugaritic is a rather peripheral member of the Late Bronze Age proto-Canaanite-Aramaic dialect continuum, a dead-end branch of NW Semitic, without known descendants. Our inability to reach a universally acceptable decision on the classification of Ugaritic is by no means due only to our less than total knowledge of the language. As witnessed by the case of the Ethiopian dialects studied by Hetzron, even when we do have access to relatively complete information, classification is by no means a certain thing. How much more so, then, in the case of dialects attached in a few short, broken inscriptions! The dialect of ancient Samal has been the parade example of such a case within the NW Semitic realm. Friedrich argued long and hard for its independent status; of late, however, a consensus seems to have developed that Samalian is Aramaic, albeit of an unusual variety. The achievement of such a consensus is due in no small part to the ongoing recognition of the dialectal diversity within Aramaic at periods much earlier than previously considered, a recognition largely due to the work of our main speaker, Prof. J.C. Greenfield. When we tum to the dialect of the language of the plaster texts from Deir 'Alla, however, scholarly agreement is much less easy to perceive. The texts were published as Aramaic, or at least Aramaic with a question mark, a classification to which other scholars have lent their support. The savants of Jerusalem, on the other hand, seem to be agreed that the language of Deir 'Alla is Canaanite – perhaps even Ammonite. Now frankly I have never been much interested in classification. My own approach has always been rather open-ended. If a new language appears in Gilead in the 8th century or so, looks somewhat like Aramaic to its North, Ammonite and Moabite to its South, and Hebrew to its West (that is to say: it looks exactly like any rational person would expect it to look like) and is clearly neither ancestor nor immediate descendant of any other known NW Semitic language that we know, why not simply say it is Gileadite and be done with it? Anyone can look at a map and see that Deir 'Alla is closer to Rabbat Ammon than it is to Damascus, Samaria or Jerusalem, but that doesn't a priori make it Ammonite. Why must we try to squeeze new evidence into cubbyholes designed on the basis of old evidence?
  11. ^ Garr, W. Randall (2004). "The Dialectal Continuum of Syria-Palestine". Dialect Geography of Syria-Palestine, 1000-586 B.C.E. Eisenbrauns. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-1-57506-091-0.
  12. ^ Huehnergard, John; Pat-El, Na’ama (2005). The Semitic Languages. Oxon: Routledge. p. 114. ISBN 0415057671.
  13. ^ Gibson, J. C. L. (30 October 1975). Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions: II. Aramaic Inscriptions: Including Inscriptions in the Dialect of Zenjirli. OUP Oxford. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-19-813186-1. The Carpentras stele: The famous funerary stele (CIS ii 141) was the first Syrian Semitic inscr. to become known in Europe, being discovered in the early 18 cent.; it measures 0.35 m high by 0.33m broad and is housed in a museum at Carpentras in southern France.
  14. ^ Daniels, Peter T. (31 March 2020). "The Decipherment of Ancient Near Eastern Languages". In Rebecca Hasselbach-Andee (ed.). A Companion to Ancient Near Eastern Languages. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-1-119-19329-6. Barthélemy was not done. On 13 November 1761, he interpreted the inscription on the Carpentras stela (KAI 269), again going letter by letter, but the only indication he gives of how he arrived at their values is that they were similar to the other Phoenician letters that were by now well known… He includes a list of roots as realized in various languages – and also shows that Coptic, which he conjectured was the continuation of the earlier language of the hieroglyphs, shares a variety of grammatical features with the languages listed above. The name "Semitic" for those languages lay two decades in the future, and the group "Aramaic," which from the list includes Syriac, Chaldaean [Jewish Aramaic], and Palmyrene, as well as the Carpentras stela, seems to have been named only about 1810 though it was recognized somewhat earlier (Daniels 1991)
  15. ^ Lehmann, Reinhard G. (2013). "Wilhelm Gesenius and the Rise of Phoenician Philology". Biblische Exegese und hebräische Lexikographie. pp. 209–266. doi:10.1515/9783110267044.209. ISBN 978-3-11-026612-2. Quote: "Nearly two hundred years later the repertory of Phoenician-Punic epigraphy counts about 10.000 inscriptions from throughout the Mediterranean and its environs."
  16. ^ Rollig, 1983
  17. ^ a b Rollig, 1983, "The Phoenician-Punic vocabulary attested to date amounts to some 668 words, some of which occur frequently. Among these are 321 hapax legomena and about 15 foreign or loan words. In comparison with Hebrew with around 7000–8000 words and 1500 hapax legomena (8), the number is remarkable."
  18. ^ Ullendorff, Edward (1971). "Is Biblical Hebrew a Language?". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 34 (2): 241–255. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00129520. JSTOR 612690. S2CID 162745779.
  19. ^ Lehmann, Reinhard G. (2013). "Wilhelm Gesenius and the Rise of Phoenician Philology" (PDF). Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH. 427: 210 and 257. ISBN 978-3-11-026612-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2014-02-21. Soon thereafter, at the end of the 17th century, the abovementioned Ignazio di Costanzo was the first to report a Phoenician inscription and to consciously recognize Phoenician characters proper... And just as the Melitensis prima inscription played a prominent part as the first-ever published Phoenician inscription... and remained the number-one-inscription in the Monumenta (fig. 8), it now became the specimen of authentic Phoenician script par excellence... The Melitensis prima inscription of Marsa Scirocco (Marsaxlokk) had its lasting prominence as the palaeographic benchmark for the assumed, or rather deduced "classical" Phoenician ("echtphönikische") script.
  20. ^ Millard, Alan (1993). "Review of Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions. Corpus and Concordance". The Journal of Theological Studies. 44 (1): 216–219. doi:10.1093/jts/44.1.216. JSTOR 23967100. …every identifiable Hebrew inscription dated before 200 BC… First ostraca, graffiti, and marks are grouped by provenance. This section contains more than five hundred items, over half of them ink-written ostraca, individual letters, receipts, memoranda, and writing exercises. The other inscriptions are names scratched on pots, scribbles of various sorts, which include couplets on the walls of tombs near Hebron, and letters serving as fitters' marks on ivories from Samaria.... The seals and seal impressions are set in the numerical sequence of Diringer and Vattioni (100.001–100.438). The pace of discovery since F. Vattioni issued his last valuable list (Ί sigilli ebraici III', AnnaliAnnali dell'Istituto Universitario Orientate di Napoli 38 (1978), 227—54) means the last seal entered by Davies is 100.900. The actual number of Hebrew seals and impressions is less than 900 because of the omission of those identified as non-Hebrew which previous lists counted. A further reduction follows when duplicate seal impressions from different sites are combined, as cross references in the entries suggest... The Corpus ends with 'Royal Stamps' (105.001-025, the Imlk stamps), '"Judah" and "Jerusalem" Stamps and Coins' (106.001-052), 'Other Official Stamps' (107.001), 'Inscribed Weights' (108.001-056) and 'Inscribed Measures' (109.001,002).... most seals have no known provenance (they probably come from burials)... Even if the 900 seals are reduced by as much as one third, 600 seals is still a very high total for the small states of Israel and Judah, and most come from Judah. It is about double the number of seals known inscribed in Aramaic, a language written over a far wider area by officials of great empires as well as by private persons.
  21. ^ Graham I. Davies; J. K. Aitken (2004). Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions: Corpus and Concordance. Cambridge University Press. p. xi. ISBN 978-0-521-82999-1. This sequel to my Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions includes mainly inscriptions (about 750 of them) which have been published in the past ten years. The aim has been to cover all publications to the end of 2000. A relatively small number of the texts included here were published earlier but were missed in the preparation of AHI. The large number of new texts is not due, for the most part, to fresh discoveries (or, regrettably, to the publication of a number of inscriptions that were found in excavations before 1990), but to the publication of items held in private collections and museums.
  22. ^ AVIGAD, N. (1953). "The Epitaph of a Royal Steward from Siloam Village". Israel Exploration Journal. 3 (3): 137–152. JSTOR 27924525. The inscription discussed here is, in the words of its discoverer, the first 'authentic specimen of Hebrew monumental epigraphy of the period of the Kings of Judah', for it was discovered ten years before the Siloam tunnel inscription. Now, after its decipherment, we may add that it is (after the Moabite Stone and the Siloam tunnel inscription) the third longest monumental inscription in Hebrew and the first known text of a Hebrew sepulchral inscription from the pre-Exilic period.
  23. ^ Clermont-Ganneau, 1899, Archaeological Researches In Palestine 1873–1874, Vol 1, p.305: "I may observe, by the way, that the discovery of these two texts was made long before that of the inscription in the tunnel, and therefore, though people in general do not seem to recognise this fact, it was the first which enabled us to behold an authentic specimen of Hebrew monumental epigraphy of the period of the Kings of Judah."
  24. ^ a b c Lehmann, Reinhard G. [in German] (2013). "Wilhelm Gesenius and the Rise of Phoenician Philology" (PDF). Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. Berlin / Boston: De Gruyter. 427: 240. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-04-08. Basically, its core consists of the comprehensive edition, or re-edition of 70 Phoenician and some more non-Phoenician inscriptions... However, just to note the advances made in the nineteenth century, it is noteworthy that Gesenius' precursor Hamaker, in his Miscellanea Phoenicia of 1828, had only 13 inscriptions at his disposal. On the other hand only 30 years later the amount of Phoenician inscribed monuments had grown so enormously that Schröder in his compendium Die phönizische Sprache. Entwurf einer Grammatik nebst Sprach- und Schriftproben of 1869 could state that Gesenius knew only a quarter of the material Schröder had at hand himself.
  25. ^ "Review of Wilhelm Gesenius's publications". The Foreign Quarterly Review. L. Scott. 1838. p. 245. What is left consists of a few inscriptions and coins, found principally not where we should a priori anticipate, namely, at the chief cities themselves, but at their distant colonies... even now there are not altogether more than about eighty inscriptions and sixty coins, and those moreover scattered through the different museums of Europe.
  26. ^ Rollig, 1983, "This increase of textual material can be easily appreciated when one looks at the first independent grammar of Phoenician , P.SCHRODER'S Die phonizische Sprache Entuurf einer Grammatik, Halle 1869, which appeared just over 110 years ago. There on pp. 47–72 all the texts known at the time are listed — 332 of them. Today, if we look at CIS Pars I, the incompleteness of which we scarcely need mention, we find 6068 texts."
  27. ^ Parker, Heather Dana Davis; Rollston, Christopher A. (2019). "9". In Hamidović, D.; Clivaz, C.; Savant, S. (eds.). Teaching Epigraphy in the Digital Age. Vol. 3. Alessandra Marguerat. LEIDEN; BOSTON: Brill. pp. 189–216. ISBN 978-90-04-34673-4. JSTOR 10.1163/j.ctvrxk44t.14. Of course, Donner and Röllig's three-volume handbook entitled KAI has been the gold standard for five decades now {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  28. ^ a b Bevan, A. A. (1904). "North-Semitic Inscriptions". The Journal of Theological Studies. 5 (18): 281–284. doi:10.1093/jts/os-V.18.281. JSTOR 23949814.
  29. ^ KAI 283, 15 legible lines, left side damaged
  30. ^ Clermont-Ganneau, Charles Simon (1897). "Une inscription phénicienne de Tyr". Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 41 (4): 347–349. doi:10.3406/crai.1897.71008.
  31. ^ KAI 284, 21 inscriptions, few words
  32. ^ AO 4831
  33. ^ "İvriz Monument". Hittite Monuments. Retrieved 2022-11-05.
  34. ^ Yakubovich, Ilya; Hawkins, J.D. (2015). "Phoenician and Luwian in Early Iron Age Cilicia". Anatolian Studies. 65: 49. doi:10.1017/S0066154615000010. ISSN 0066-1546. JSTOR 24878375. S2CID 162771440.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q ICO: Amadasi Guzzo, Maria Giulia (1967). Le iscrizioni fenicie e puniche delle colonie in Occidente. Studi semitici (in Italian). Istituto di studi del Vicino Oriente, Università. Retrieved 2022-10-13.
  36. ^ a b Moriggi, Marco (2011). "Phoenician and Punic Inscriptions in the Museo di Antichità di Torino (Turin, Italy)". Egitto e Vicino Oriente. 34: 81–94. JSTOR 24233436.
  37. ^ Vassel, Eusèbe (1907). "Notes sur quelques stèles puniques". Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 51 (5): 262–265. doi:10.3406/crai.1907.72083.
  38. ^ Pritchard J.B., The Tanit Inscription from Sarepta, in H.G. Niemeyer (ed.), Phönizier im Westen (Madrider Beiträge 8), Mainz am Rhein, 1982, 83-92. Amadasi Guzzo M. G., Two Phoenician Inscriptions Carved in Ivory: Again the Ur Box and the Sarepta Plaque, Orientalia 59/1, 1990, 58-66.
  39. ^ Cross, Frank Moore (1980). "Newly Found Inscriptions in Old Canaanite and Early Phoenician Scripts". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (238): 15–17. doi:10.2307/1356511. ISSN 0003-097X. JSTOR 1356511. S2CID 222343641.
  40. ^ Bourogiannis, Giorgos. The Phoenician presence in the Aegean during the Early Iron Age: Trade, settlement and cultural interaction, Rivista di Studi Fenici 46, 2018, p. 63.
  41. ^ "ERC MAP - View Source #13".
  42. ^ Bisi, A.M.; Amadasi, M.G. (1969). Grotta Regina, I.: Rapporto preliminare della Missione congiunta con la Soprintendenza alle antichità della Sicilia occidentale (in Italian). Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche. p. Number 38A. Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  43. ^ Amadasi, M.G. (1986). Scavi a Mozia, le iscrizioni. Collezione di studi fenici (in Italian). Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche. p. Numbers 23, 24, 31. Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  44. ^ 23 = KAI 296 No. 24 = KAI 297 No. 31 = KAI 298 Amadasi Guzzo M.G., Scavi a Mozia - Le iscrizioni, Rome 1986
  45. ^ in Garbini G., Le iscrizioni fenicie, in R. Zucca (ed.), Il tempio del Sardus Pater ad Antas, Rome, 2019, 67-86
  46. ^ Schmitz, Philip C. (1994). "The Name 'Agrigentum' in a Punic Inscription (CIS I 5510.10)". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 53 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1086/373651. JSTOR 545353. S2CID 161397507.
  47. ^ TelShHa 3 and TelShHa 5
  48. ^ FALES, F. M; BACHELOT, L.; ATTARDO, E. (1996). "An Aramaic Tablet from Tell Shioukh Fawqani, Syria". An Aramaic Tablet from Tell Shioukh Fawqani, Syria. 46: 81–121. INIST 2463380.
  49. ^ Bordreuil, Pierre, "Une tablette araméenne inédite de 635 av. J.-C.." Sem 23 (1973): 95–102 + pls. I-V.
  50. ^ Fales, Frederick Mario, "Sulla tavoletta aramaica A.O. 25.341." AION 36 (1976): 541–47.
  51. ^ Kaufman, Stephen A., "An Assyro-Aramaic egirtu ša Šulmu." Pp. 119–27 In Essays on the Ancient Near East in Memory of Jacob Joel Finkelstein. Ellis, M. de Jong, ed. Hamden, Ct.: Archon, 1977.
  52. ^ Wesselius, J.W., "A Document Concerning the Sustenance of a Mother by Her Sons." AION 45 (1985): 506–8.
  53. ^ Bhayro, Siam (2008). "The Aramaic 'Fugitive' Decree: A New Interpretation". Aramaic Studies. Brill. 6 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1163/147783508x371268. ISSN 1477-8351. S2CID 162356215.
  54. ^ J.W. Wesselius, ‘The Aramaic Decree about Fugitives Reconsidered’, in E. Talstra (ed.),Narrative and Comment:Contributions to Discourse Grammar and Biblical Hebrew presented to Wolfgang Schneider(Amsterdam: Societas Hebraica Amstelodamensis,1995), pp.199–209(p.201)
  55. ^ Sokoloff, Michael (1999). "The Old Aramaic Inscription from Bukān: A Revised Interpretation". Israel Exploration Journal. 49 (1/2): 105–115. JSTOR 27926880.
  56. ^ A., Une inscription araméenne du VIIIe s. av. J.-C. trouvée à Bukân (Azebaïdjan Iranien), Sudia Iranica 27, 1998, 15-30.
  57. ^ Tekoglu, Recai; Lemaire, André; Ipek, Ismet; Kasim Tosun, A. (2000). "La bilingue royale louvito-phénicienne de Çineköy". Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 144 (3): 961–1007. doi:10.3406/crai.2000.16174. INIST 13488688.
  58. ^ Yakubovich, Ilya (2015). "Phoenician and Luwian in Early Iron Age Cilicia". Anatolian Studies. 65: 35–53. doi:10.1017/S0066154615000010. JSTOR 24878375. S2CID 162771440. ProQuest 1693847338.
  59. ^ Schloen, J. David; Fink, Amir S. (2009). "New Excavations at Zincirli Höyük in Turkey (Ancient Samʾal) and the Discovery of an Inscribed Mortuary Stele". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 356 (356): 1–13. doi:10.1086/BASOR25609345. JSTOR 25609345. S2CID 164088482.
  60. ^ Adam L. Bean (2018). "An inscribed altar from the Khirbat Ataruz Moabite sanctuary". Levant. 50 (2): 211–236. doi:10.1080/00758914.2019.1619971. S2CID 199266038.
  61. ^ Yosef Garfinkel, Mitka R. Golub, Haggai Misgav, and Saar Ganor (2015). "The ʾIšbaʿal Inscription from Khirbet Qeiyafa". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. The American Schools of Oriental Research. 373 (373): 217–233. doi:10.5615/bullamerschoorie.373.0217. JSTOR 10.5615/bullamerschoorie.373.0217. S2CID 164971133.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  62. ^ Aaron Demsky (2012). "An Iron Age IIA Alphabetic Writing Exercise from Khirbet Qeiyafa". Israel Exploration Journal. Israel Exploration Society. 62 (2): 186–199. JSTOR 43855624.
  63. ^ Jacob Kaplan (1958). "The Excavation in Tell Abu Zeitun in 1957". Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society (in Hebrew). Israel Exploration Society. 22 (1/2): 99. JSTOR 23730357.
  64. ^ Sefarad journal[full citation needed]
  65. ^ Sola Solé, Josep M. (1951–52). "La plaquette en bronze d'Ibiza". Semitica. Paris. IV: 25 ff.
    Sola Solé, Josep M. (1955). "Inscripciones fenicias en la Peninsula Ibérica". Sefarad. Madrid - Barcelona. XV: 45ff.
    Littmann, Enno (1932). "Punische Inschriften aus Ibiza". Forschungen und Fortschritte: Nachrichtenblatt der Deutschen Wissenschaft und Technik (in German). 8: 179.
  66. ^ Series of articles in the journal Sumer
  67. ^ Aggoula B., Inventaire des inscriptions hatréennes, Paris, 1991. Beyer K., Die aramäischen Inschriften aus Assur, Ḥatra und dem übrigen Ostmesopotamien (datiert 44 v.Chr. bis 238 n.Chr.), Göttingen, 1998. Healey, J., Aramaic Inscriptions & Documents of the Roman Period, (Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions, Volume IV), Oxford, 2009.
  68. ^ Smirnov, 1895
  69. ^ Note sur l'inscription punique d'une borne limite découverte en Tunisie
  70. ^ Garbini, Giovanni (1968). "Note di Epigrafia Punica – III". Rivista degli studi orientali. [Fabrizio Serra Editore, Sapienza – Universita di Roma]. 43 (1): 5–17. ISSN 0392-4866. JSTOR 41880004. Retrieved 2023-04-24.