Arad, Israel

Coordinates: 31°15′40″N 35°12′55″E / 31.26111°N 35.21528°E / 31.26111; 35.21528
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

City (from 1995)
Official logo of Arad
Arad is located in Northern Negev region of Israel
Arad is located in Israel
Coordinates: 31°15′40″N 35°12′55″E / 31.26111°N 35.21528°E / 31.26111; 35.21528
Country Israel
Founded4000 BCE (Tel Arad)
1100 BCE (Israelite city)
1962 (Israeli city)
 • MayorNissan Ben Hamo
 • Total93,140 dunams (93.14 km2 or 35.96 sq mi)
 • Total27,967
 • Density300/km2 (780/sq mi)
Name meaningNamed after Tel Arad

Arad (Hebrew: עֲרָד (audio)) is a city in the Southern District of Israel. It is located on the border of the Negev and the Judean Deserts, 25 kilometres (16 miles) west of the Dead Sea and 45 kilometres (28 miles) east of Beersheba. The city is home to a diverse population of 27,582,[1] including Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews, both secular and religious, Bedouins and Black Hebrews, as well as new immigrants.

After attempts to settle the area in the 1920s, Arad was founded in November 1962 as an Israeli development town, the first planned city in Israel. Arad's population grew significantly with the Aliyah from the former Soviet Union. It became a city is 1995.

Landmarks in Arad include the ruins of Tel Arad, Arad Park, a domestic airfield and Israel's first legal race circuit. The city is known for its annual summer music festival, the Arad Festival.[2]



Tel Arad

Arad is named after the Biblical Bronze Age Canaanite town located at Tel Arad (a Biblical archaeology site famous for the discovery of ostraca), which is located approximately 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) west of modern Arad.[3] The Bible (Judges 1:16) describes it as a Canaanite stronghold whose king kept the Israelites from moving from the Negev to the Judean Mountains, although Tel Arad was destroyed over 1,200 years before the arrival of the Israelites. However, Shoshenq I's chronicles seem to mention a settlement in Tel Arad. After its destruction during the Canaanite era, the town lay abandoned for centuries before being resettled by the Israelites from the 11th century BCE onward. The Israelites initially settled it as an unwalled piece of land cut off as an official or sacred domain was established on the upper hill. It was later a garrison-town known as "The Citadel". The citadel and sanctuary are believed to have been constructed at the time of Kings David and Solomon. Artifacts found within the sanctuary of the citadel mostly reflect offerings of oil, wine, wheat, etc. brought there by numerous people during the time of the Kingdom of Judah, up to Judah's fall to the Babylonians. Under the Judaean kings, the citadel was periodically refortified, remodeled and rebuilt, until ultimately it was destroyed between 597 BCE and 577 BCE whilst Jerusalem was under siege by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II. However, during the Persian, Maccabean, Roman, and early Muslim eras, locals continued to transport these items to the sacred precinct of the upper hill. Markers of these ancient Israelite rituals remain to this day, with broken pottery littering the entire site.

During the Byzantine period, the location was still correctly identified by Eusebius, and the name "Arad" was preserved by the Bedouins.[4] Ancient Arad became a Christian bishopric. Stephanus, one of its bishops, was a signatory of the synodal letter of John III of Jerusalem against Severus of Antioch in 518 and took part in the 536 synod of the three Roman provinces of Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda, and Palaestina Salutaris (to the last of which Arad belonged) against Anthimus I of Constantinople.[5][6] No longer a residential bishopric, Arad is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[7]

British Mandate era[edit]

The first modern attempt to settle the area was made by the Yishuv, the body of Jewish residents in Mandatory Palestine, on 23 February 1921, when the British Mandate government allowed discharged soldiers from the Jewish Legion to settle in the area. Nine men and two women attempted the task, but after four months were forced to leave because water was not found in the area.[3]

State of Israel[edit]

Aerial view of Arad

On 15 November 1960, a planning team, followed by a full-fledged committee on 29 December, was appointed by the Israeli cabinet to examine the possibility of establishing a city in the northeastern Negev desert and Arad region. An initial budget of IL50,000 was granted for the project, headed by Aryeh ("Lova") Eliav. On 31 January 1961, the final location was chosen (3.5 kilometers (2.2 mi) southwest of Mount Kidod), and plans were approved for roads and water connections. In March 1961, blueprints for a city of 10,000- 20,000 residents were drawn up. Yona Pitelson was the chief architect and planner.[8]

The plan took into account topography and climate, with residential buildings constructed with large inner courtyards that offered protection from the desert sun and wind. High density residential areas were built first in order to create an urban milieu and shorten walking distances.[9]

Original city plan for Arad

The oil company Nefta built a work camp in the area in July 1961, consisting of six temporary sheds, after oil was found there in commercial quantities.[8][10] The town itself was established in 1962 by a group of young ex-kibbutz and ex-moshav members seeking an environment free of overcrowding, traffic, noise, and pollution.[11] The founding ceremony was held on 21 November, and attended by then-Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion. It was one of the last development towns to be founded.[12] According to the city website, Arad was the first pre-planned city in Israel.[13]

Until 1964 Arad had about 160 families, most of whom were natives. After 1971 Arad began absorbing olim (Jewish immigrants), mostly from the Soviet Union, but also from English speaking countries and Latin America, and its population increased from 4,000 in 1969 to 10,500 in 1974 and 12,400 in 1983. During the first half of the 1990s, Arad absorbed 6,000 immigrants from the former Soviet Union.[4] In 1995, the city had 20,900 residents. Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin declared Arad a city on 29 June 1995.[14]


Neighborhoods of Arad

Arad is located mostly on the western and southwestern Kidod Range, and the Arad Plain,[15] which marks the southwestern end of the Judean Desert. It is located 23 kilometers (14.3 mi) west of the southern end of the Dead Sea, and is by road, 45 kilometers (28.0 mi) east of Beersheva, 111 kilometers (69.0 mi) south of Jerusalem, 138 kilometers (85.7 mi) south east of Tel Aviv, and 219 kilometers (136.1 mi) north of the southernmost city of Eilat.[16]

The city spans an area of 93,140 dunams (93.1 km2; 36.0 sq mi),[17] one of the largest municipal areas in Israel, even though its urban area is much smaller. In 1993, the city's jurisdiction was 73,934.3 dunams (73.9 km2; 28.5 sq mi), still many times larger than the urban area.[18] The historical site of Tel Arad and the Arad Park (also known as Ran Grove) can also be found within its municipal area, west of the urban core. Arad also has a commercial landing strip located slightly to the south of its urban core. It borders the Tamar and Abu Basma regional councils, and the closest local municipality to Arad is the Bedouin local council Kuseife.


Gevim neighborhood from the southeast
Rotem neighborhood from the east
Shaked neighborhood from the southwest

Each neighborhood in Arad contains streets named in a thematic manner, for example, a neighborhood where all streets are named after jewels. The exception to this are the four central quarters, which have more conventional street names, and the original two neighborhoods (Rishonim and Ne'urim). The themed neighborhoods make up the entire city north of Highway 31. South of the highway is Arad's industrial zone (the northern area being the light industry zone). The neighborhoods are as follows:

Name Meaning Theme
Avishur Abishur
Tlalim Dew (plural)
Leva'ot Lionesses
Ye'elim Ibexes
Gevim Cisterns Fluvial bodies
Halamish Flint Fruits
Yehoshafat (under construction) Jehoshaphat Kings of Israel and Judea
Rishonim Pioneers
Ne'urim Youth
Renanim (under construction) Joys Music
Ayanot Springs Springs
Ma'of Flight Birds
Hatzavim Squills Military
Harduf Oleander Heights (figurative)
Shaked Almond Plants
Rotem Broom Jewels

Geology and topography[edit]

Kidod Stream (Wadi Kadada)
Pra'im Stream

The western part of Arad is made up of Loess land, while the eastern part is made up of sedimentary rock, including chalk, flint and dolomite.[19]

Arad's elevation ranges between approximately 361.5 and 631.1 metres (1,186 and 2,071 ft) above sea level,[17] a notable peak being Mount Kidod (600 m or 2,000 ft), located at the northeastern point of the city and named after Ras al-Kadadeh, the Arabic name for the hill.[3][4] Other peaks within the municipal borders include Mount Kina (635 m or 2,083 ft) and Mount Brir (537 m or 1,762 ft). There are several wadis that pass through Arad, notably the Ye'elim Stream (which runs along Highway 31) and Tze'elim Stream. Others include the Hesed, Keisan, Kidod, Kina, Malhata, Pra'im, Tavya, and other streams.[20]


US Ambassador Shapiro visits Arad solar plant

Between 1964 and 1974, Arad's average temperature in January was 11 °C (52 °F), and 27 °C (81 °F) in July. The average yearly precipitation between 1960 and 1990 was 150 millimetres (5.9 in),[17] and 158 millimetres (6.2 in) between 1962 and 1978.[19] Arad is thus situated in an arid area, where most precipitation falls in the winter months of December, January and February. It does however, on rare occasions, snow. Two examples are the massive snowstorm during the 1991–92 winter that swept through entire mountainous region of the Negev and January's snowstorm of 2008.[21][22]


Distribution of population by age

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, of Arad's 24,400 2015 population, 80.3% were Jews, and another 16.8% were other non-Arabs. 11,900 (~48.8%) were men and 12,500 were women. 33.8% (the second highest in the country) were immigrants since 1990.[23] Arad's population peaked in 2002 at 24,500.[24] Arad's former mayor, Moty Brill, said that the reason for the city's decline is its failure to absorb the massive immigration from Russia.[25] In early 2007, a study ordered by the Israeli Housing and Construction Ministry found that Arad suffered from a negative image, and described it a "settlement that drives residents away".[26]

In 2015, Arad had 10,983 (~45%) salaried workers and 529 (~2.2%) self-employed. 11,805 were receiving children's benefits, 321 were receiving unemployment benefits, and 1,168 were receiving income guarantee. The average monthly income for self-employed workers was NIS 6,934, with salaried employees earning an average of NIS 6,988 (NIS 9,008 for men and NIS 5,184 for women).[23]

The IDF's City of Training Bases, under construction near Beersheba, hopes to bring thousands of soldiers (mostly officers, senior NCOs and other staff) to live in the Negev, including Arad. According to Orli Yehezkel, CEO of the Ministry for the Development of the Negev and Galilee, said NIS 4.5 million will be invested in Arad, including a subsidy of NIS 1,000 per family per month for two years for families of soldiers wishing to move to Arad.[27]

The Negev and Galilee Development Ministry envisions a tripling of Arad's population by 2025.[28]


Arad Mall
Arad Market on a closed day

Other than tourist venues, Arad's commerce is mostly concentrated in the central commerce area, as envisioned in the original plan. There is one shopping mall in the city, the Arad Mall, in the northern block of the commerce sector.[29] In addition to the main area, there are small shop clusters in most neighborhoods in the city, notably a building called The Star (HaKokhav) in the Tlalim quarter. A lone supermarket outside the center, Mega in the City, is located in the industrial zone, near the entrance to the city, and a major shopping complex is planned near it by a real estate company called Zim Centers. The Arad Market, open on Mondays, is located in the light industry zone.[30]

Among the companies with manufacturing plants in Arad are Arad Textile Industries, one of Israel's largest producers of towels, Flextronics Israel, El-Ran Timber Industries, Jordael who manufacture cosmetic products, and a Unilever Shefa Israel cereal plant.

A.M.S. Electronics is manufacturing printed circuit boards and electronic products. One of Israels main defence companys, Elbit Systems is manufacturing Communications Systems at a producation site in Arad. In 2017 Elbit became a new order for SDR Radios from the than Israeli Ministry of Defense (IMoD) and expected to enlarge the facility.[31]

Since 1971, Arad has been producing phosphoric acid, made from brine collected from the Dead Sea, and phosphates from the nearby Tzefa.[10] Rotem Amfert Negev Ltd, a subsidiary of Israel Chemicals Ltd (ICL), has been planning a new phosphate plant in the Sdeh Brir area for several years. In 2008, the Ministry of the Environment decided not to contest the company's bid, despite studies showing it may increase air pollution-related deaths in the area.[32]


Yigal Tumarkin's monument in the Moav Outlook

In addition to the annual music festival, Arad's fresh air attracts asthmatics from all over the world, and its proximity to the Dead Sea provides a less expensive accommodation alternative to the pricey hotel zone on the sea shore.[10] The Arad municipality has begun to develop hiking and ecological tourism. Additionally, many visitors to Masada stay in Arad, which is the closest (22 km (13.7 mi) by road) urban settlement to the site and provides the only access to its western side.[33] On the outskirts of Arad, near the hotel area, there is a large white monument conceived by Yigal Tumarkin in 1968, called Mitzpe Mo'av (Mo'av Lookout), which also offers a view of the Judean Desert.[34]

The Israel National Trail passes through Arad, between Mount Kina and Tel Arad, a major archeological site and national park. Although not located within Arad's jurisdiction, the Zohar Peak (552 m or 1,811 ft) and Zohar Lookout (Mitzpe Zohar) are common hiking and biking destinations on the national trail. The trails codenamed 11335 and 11240 run along the national trail in this area.[35]


Arad's main cultural center is the Center for Culture, Youth and Sports (Hebrew: מתנ"ס, Matnas), named after Samuel Rubin and located on Ben Yair Street near the Arad Mall.[29][36] It was built in 1983[37] and contains the Arad Museum, Arad's public library, a concert hall and the Arad Visitor Center, founded in 1989.[11]

The Oron movie theater designed by the architect Menachem Cohen closed during the tenure of Mayor Moty Brill. Eshet Lot, an artists quarter, is located in the city's industrial zone, utilizing old warehouses.[38] The city also has a conservatory and concert hall.[39]

In 2007, the Ministry for the Development of the Negev and Galilee proposed moving the national archive of Israel from Jerusalem to Arad and opening a museum.[40][41]

Arad was known for its annual music festival, first held in 1982. It was a popular event and a major magnet for artists until 1995. On 18 July 1995, three teenagers were crushed to death by a falling gate during a farewell concert by the band Mashina. Despite the festival organizers' attempts to keep the festival going it was cut short. Five of the festival's organizers received prison sentences of up to one year.[42]

Stone structure in Gan HaHamisha, marking Arad's place in the desert, according to Bedouin tradition

The main public park and picnic area is Arad Park, also called the Ran Grove (after Ran Schochat, who was killed in the Yom Kippur War[43]), which is located about 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) west of the city center and measures 3,000 dunams (3.0 km2; 1.2 sq mi).[4] Other notable parks include:

  • Gan HaPsalim (a.k.a. Park HaNsharim), the park at the entrance to the city, with monuments of various desert animals[44]
  • Gan HaHamisha (Garden of the Five), a memorial park for the five residents of Arad who were killed in action in the Six-Day War.[43] Includes a monument for the soldiers, as well as a stone structure called Amud HaBulbusim (lit. Pillar of the Potatoes, because of its shape), which marks Arad's place in the desert and their residents' control of the territory according to Bedouin tradition – designed by Yona Pitelson.
  • Northern Park, to the north of the Halamish neighborhood[45]
  • Gan Harpatka'ot (Adventure Park), a large playground and open grass area in the Rishonim neighborhood[46]

The main cluster of recreational facilities is located in the Ayanot neighborhood also called Kiryat HaSport. Facilities include a swimming pool, tennis courts, a country club and playgrounds.[47] The city's main football stadium is located nearby on the corner of Yehuda and Palmach Streets. The stadium is home to Hapoel Arad, which plays in Liga Bet, the fourth tier of Israeli football.

Since 2000, Arad also hosts an annual mountain biking tournament, Riding Arad, in memory of Itamar Ilya, a soldier killed in action in Lebanon in 1997. In March 2008, the tournament became part of an international Union Cycliste Internationale competition, which is co-hosted by Misgav and Ma'alot. Arad's professional course is 37 kilometers (23.0 mi) long, while the expert course is 22.5 kilometers (14.0 mi).[48][49]

Schaller Medical Centre


Arad does not have a hospital, but there are numerous medical clinics, including Clalit, Leumit and Maccabi. Emergencies are handled by the single Magen David Adom station, located in the municipal compound.

A medical center was also built in the compound in 2004, named Schaller Medical Centre after Leon and Freda Schaller from London, who were the prime donors. It serves as an emergency ward, but does not have the equipment needed to perform operations, and such patients are transferred to the Soroka Medical Center. On average, 10% of the patients are transferred.[50]

Law enforcement[edit]

Arad is served by a local Israel Police station, located next to the municipal compound and the Magen David Adom station. It is commanded by Superintendent Yuval Paz[51] and has 58 members.[52] Arad's station also serves the Sodom area.[53]

Arad's police force was chosen as the exceptional force for 2007, and awarded an award of excellence on 5 March 2008. Among others, a severe reduction in property crime was cited. Arad's force was able to reduce the amount of such crimes from 1,092 in 2003 to just 168 in 2007.[52][53] On 18 July 2008, Arad police, in a rare incident, shot dead a man threatening to kill his ex-wife with a knife.[54]

Education and religious institutions[edit]

ORT Arad HS, formerly Yigal Allon Junior High
Avishur elementary school

Arad has a public elementary school in every central neighborhood (Halamish, Tlalim, Avishur, Leva'ot and Ye'elim (called Ye'elim-Ofarim)), while Tlalim is a religious school.[55] There is one public middle school, Re'ut, located near the junction of the Yoshiyahu and HaKana'im streets. The second middle school, Allon, was closed in 2007 and merged into ORT Arad, the city's only public secondary school, which shares a building with the Re'ut middle school and the former Yigal Allon school.[56] In the 2006–07 school year, 57.14% of Arad's 12th graders were eligible for a Bagrut (matriculation) certificate, compared to a national average of 45.9%. In the 2007–08-year, the number dropped to 49.67%, compared to a national average of 46.3%.[57]

In addition, there are several private and Haredi schools in Arad, such as the Shuvu movement's grades 1–8 school, and the Gerrer Haredi school.[55] Other Haredi schools include the boys' Beit Ya'akov and girls' Kol Ya'akov in the Halamish neighborhood, the Lev Simcha Yeshiva, and the Beit Ya'akov High School. Religious Zionist schools include the Ne'ot Avraham Bnei Akiva Ulpana, which also provides young women with the guidance to perform volunteer activities in the community,[58] and the Tlalim Elementary School, founded in 1971.[59]

Rotem neighborhood synagogue

SOS Children's Village Arad (known as Kfar Neradim) was built in the southern outskirts of Arad and inaugurated on 27 October 1981. It consists of twelve family houses, to accommodate up to 120 children. There is also an SOS Youth Facility to accommodate 12 to 14 youths from the SOS Children's Village. In January 2005, an SOS Social Centre was opened at Arad. It runs a day-care center and various community outreach programmes to support socially weak families.[60] Until fall 2008, the World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS), funded by Jews from New Jersey, had an institute in Arad which allowed post-college young Jews from around the world to study Israeli society and the Hebrew language. When WUJS's ownership changed, the institute was moved to the center of the country.[61]

Arad has 22 synagogues, of which 11 are Ashkenazi, 9 are Sephardi, one is Yemenite, and one is Ethiopian. Both the central Ashkenazi and Sephardi synagogues are located in the Ye'elim neighborhood. A Masorti synagogue, Shira Hadasha is in the Rishonim neighborhood. There are Gerrer synagogues in Avishur and Halamish, and a Chabad synagogue in Ye'elim.[62] There are two mikvehs in the city–in the Tlalim and Ayanot neighborhoods.[63] The city also has a small Messianic community that is being accused of illegal missionary activities by the Haredim and certain right-wing groups.[64] Arad's dead are mostly buried in the local cemetery, located in the northeastern outskirts of the city, close to the road to Masada.


Arad's local newspaper, Kidod, was published by the entrepreneurs Eli and Rochale Ziv, early founders of Arad. Kidod started as a small leaflet in December 1966 and grew to a become a full paper. At its peak, it was circulated, free of charge, in groceries, kiosks, etc., in 3,000 copies each week. Kidod ran for 23 years and had a key role in the cultural and community life of Arad. HaTzvi Arad is the local newspaper today.


Metropoline mini-bus on the internal Line 1

Arad is reached by Highway 31, which connects it with Beersheba to the west, and the Dead Sea to the east. It has two junctions within Arad's municipal area—the Arad Junction (within the city itself, with Road 3199), and the Tel Arad Junction (with Highway 80).[65] The local Road 3199 connects Arad with Masada, but does not connect to the road next to the dead sea (Highway 90). It is therefore the only way to get to Masada's western side.[33]

Arad's airfield, first used during the music festival of 1994, is located south of the city, and serves domestic flights according to demand.[66] In May 2017, a new railway line to Arad via Kuseife was approved. The line will connect to the existing Beersheba-Dimona rail line at Nevatim.[67][68][69] Its terminus will be adjacent to the central bus station.[70]

Arad Central Bus Station, once located on the corner of Yerushalayim Street and Yehuda Street was closed due to a legal battle between the municipality and the Egged Bus Cooperative. A new station was subsequently built with seven platforms and a park and ride lot.[71]

Buses in Arad are served by the Egged Bus Cooperative and Metropoline.[72] A multitude of inter-city bus routes are served by the main station, two more inter-city Haredi routes which leave from the north, as well as five inner routes (1, 2, 3, 11, 12). The inter-city routes are :[73][74]

Line Route Company
384 Beersheba CBS – Ein Gedi Egged
385 Beersheba CBS – Ein Bokek Egged
386 Arad (center) – Beersheba CBS Metropoline
388 Arad (center) – Beersheba CBS Metropoline
389 Arad (center) – Tel Aviv CBS Egged
543 Arad (center) – Komemiyut Egged
550 Arad (north) – Bnei Brak Egged
552 Arad (center) – Ashdod Egged
554 Arad (north) – Jerusalem Har Hotzvim Egged
555 Arad (north) – Jerusalem CBS Egged
558 Arad (center) – Bnei Brak (weekends only) Egged
559 Arad (center) – Beit Shemesh (weekends only) Metropoline
560 Arad (center) – Ashdod (weekends only) Egged

Local government[edit]

Avraham "Beiga" Shochat, the first elected leader of Arad
Gideon Bar-Lev, former mayor

Arad has, since its inception in 1962, been under the governance of a regional council and local council, before being designated as a city council in 1995. Democratic elections have been held in Arad since 1966, although only Avraham Shochat, Betzalel Tabib and Moty Brill were ever elected or re-elected as the head of the municipality. The first mayor of the city of Arad was Betzalel Tabib who served as both head of the local council and city council. He was replaced by Mordechai Brill in 2003, although due to his inability to pass a yearly budget, Brill was dismissed by the Minister of the Interior Meir Sheetrit in August 2007, and a government-appointed clerk, Gideon Bar-Lev, took his place.[75] An election took place again 13 April 2010, won by Tali Ploskov of the Yisrael Beiteinu party.[76] The longest serving head of Arad's municipality was Avraham Shochat who served as head of the local council between 1967 and 1986.[8]

Arad's yearly budget is over 100 million NIS and over $30 million USD. On 27 December 2007, the 2008 budget was unanimously passed at NIS 123 million by the city council. The city's total income for the year is estimated at approximately NIS 119 million.[77]

Name Term Position Party
Aryeh "Lyova" Eliav 1960 – June 1962 Head of Arad Regional Council Mapai
Yitzhak Pundak June 1962 – 1965 Head of Arad Regional Council
Yitzhak Pundak 1965–1966 Head of local council
Ze'ev Haimoni 1966–1967 Head of local council Mapam
Avraham Shochat 1967–1986 Head of local council Labor
Betzalel Tabib 1986 – 29 June 1995 Head of local council Labor
Betzalel Tabib 29 June 1995 – October 2003 Mayor Labor
Mordechai "Moty" Brill October 2003 – August 2007 Mayor
Gideon Bar-Lev October 2007 – April 2010 Mayor
Tali Ploskov April 2010 – 2015 Mayor Yisrael Beiteinu
Nisan Ben Hamo 2015– Mayor Yesh Atid

While it is not customary for Israeli cities to have major unique/auxiliary laws, many cities have minor laws. In Arad, it is illegal to feed animals in public places.[78] It is also illegal to sell or consume sunflower seeds, peanuts, etc. in public places, due to an anti-littering law enacted in 1965.[79] There are in all 27 auxiliary laws in Arad, which were enacted between 1965 and 2000.[80][81]

Municipal flag and emblem[edit]

Flag of Arad

The emblem of Arad is a square with a hill and a flame. The hill represents Mount Kidod, a hill in the northeastern part of the city, and the flame represents natural gas, which was extracted in the area in Arad's early days and spurred the city's growth. The emblem was adopted on 19 May 1966.[82] The flag of Arad is a rectangle with a 2:3 ratio, which has a light blue background and shows the emblem in the center with the Hebrew text for "Municipality of Arad" at the top and the English text "City of ARAD Israel" (or variations thereof) and the bottom. This is the de facto flag, and there is no law or edict making it official.[82]

Notable people[edit]

Amos Oz

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Regional Statistics". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  2. ^ Dafna Arad (3 August 2011). "Arad Festival returns to its rock roots". Haaretz. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Vilnai, Ze'ev (1979). "Arad". Ariel Encyclopedia (in Hebrew). Vol. 7. Israel: Am Oved. pp. 6002–6003.
  4. ^ a b c d Mapa's concise gazetteer of Israel (in Hebrew). El'azari, Yuval (ed.). Tel Aviv, Israel: Mapa Publishing. 2005. pp. 434–435. ISBN 965-7184-34-7.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. III, coll. 727–730
  6. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 454
  7. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 836
  8. ^ a b c "Arad – First Days – Preface" (in Hebrew). Arad Historical Museum. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
  9. ^ Efrat, Elisha (2009). Tzameret, Tzvi (ed.). The Development Towns. Idan Series #24 (in Hebrew). Yad Ben Zvi. pp. 53–55. ISBN 978-965-217-298-3.
  10. ^ a b c Ben Yosef, Safi; Menahem Marcus, eds. (2001). "Arad". The New Israel Guide. Vol. 14. Jerusalem, Israel: Keter Publishing House. pp. 196–197. ISBN 965-07-0902-9.
  11. ^ a b HaReuveni, Immanuel (1999). Lexicon of the Land of Israel (in Hebrew). Miskal – Yedioth Ahronoth Books and Chemed Books. pp. 781–782. ISBN 965-448-413-7.
  12. ^ Krausz, Ernest; Glanz, David; Antonovsky, Aaron (1980). Studies of Israeli Society. Transaction Publishers. p. 225. ISBN 0-87855-369-X.
  13. ^ "Arad – to Live Quality" (in Hebrew). Arad Municipality. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  14. ^ "Visitor's Card" (in Hebrew). Arad Municipality. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  15. ^ Shmueli, Avshalom; Gardus, Yehuda, eds. (1978–1979). The Land of the Negev (in Hebrew). Vol. 2. Tel Aviv, Israel: Ministry of Defense. p. 575.
  16. ^ "Driving Distances". Israel Travel Tips. Archived from the original on 27 September 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  17. ^ a b c "Local Authorities in Israel 2005, Publication #1295 – Municipality Profiles – Arad" (PDF) (in Hebrew). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 25 November 2007.
  18. ^ Esther Levinson, ed. (April 1994). Statistical Yearbook for the Negev, #1 1993 (in Hebrew). Beersheba, Israel: Mi UMa Tikshoret Mekomit. p. 40.
  19. ^ a b Shmueli, Avshalom; Gardus, Yehuda, eds. (1978–1979). The Land of the Negev (in Hebrew). Vol. 2. Tel Aviv, Israel: Ministry of Defense. p. 573.
  20. ^ Topographic Maps and Hiking Routes (Map) (in Hebrew). Amud Anan. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  21. ^ "Blizzard of 2008 Update". Arutz Sheva. 30 January 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
  22. ^ "Daily Herald – Rare Snowstorm paralyzes cities throughout Mideast". Daily Herald. 3 January 1992. Archived from the original on 25 February 2023. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
  23. ^ a b "Local Authorities in Israel 2015, Publication #1683 – Municipality Profiles – Arad" (PDF) (in Hebrew). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  24. ^ "Population and Density per Km2 in Localities Numbering Above 5,000 Residents" (PDF). 55th Statistical Yearbook. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 February 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  25. ^ Ben Simon, Daniel. "Oh no, just like Dimona". Haaretz (in Hebrew). Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  26. ^ Mirkovsky, Arik (16 January 2007). "The Ministry of Housing's recommendation to settling the Negev and Galilee: Start spreading the population, don't stop spending money" (in Hebrew). TheMarker. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  27. ^ Bar Sadeh, Eliezer (14 February 2008). "Arad Will Be a Focused City". 439th Edition (in Hebrew). HaTzvi Arad. Archived from the original on 25 January 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
  28. ^ Udasin, Sharon (8 December 2011). "1.2 million residents in the Negev by 2025". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  29. ^ a b Tourist Map of Arad (Map). Arad Municipality. § He3. Archived from the original on 8 November 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  30. ^ Bar Sadeh, Eliezer (23 July 2008). "Real Estate Company Zim Plans to Construct Giant Shopping and Entertainment Center in Arad". 462nd Edition (in Hebrew). HaTzvi Arad. Archived from the original on 25 January 2007. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
  31. ^ Srivari (23 March 2017). "Elbit to deliver software-defined radios for Israel Defense Forces". Army Technology. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  32. ^ Ben-David, Amir (30 April 2008). "Environmental Ministry supports building polluting factory near Arad". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2008.
  33. ^ a b Gold Atlas (Map) (2007 ed.). 1:100,000 (in Hebrew). Mapa. p. 42. § Vav23. ISBN 965-521-082-0.
  34. ^ "Hiking Trails" (in Hebrew). Arad Municipality. Archived from the original on 6 January 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  35. ^ 11240 Trail Map Archived 23 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine (image). Retrieved on 14 October 2008.
  36. ^ "Matnas Index" (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 18 February 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  37. ^ "About the Library – Some History". Arad Municipality. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
  38. ^ Sa'ar, Dana (25 July 2005). "Go Out into the Desert" (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 3 November 2005. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  39. ^ "Arad City Conservatory" (in Hebrew). Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  40. ^ Grinberg, Mijal (7 March 2007). "State to move archives to Arad as part of Negev development plan". Haaretz. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  41. ^ "National Archive Moves to Arad" (in Hebrew). 11 March 2007. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
  42. ^ Kaplan, Reuven (26 December 2001). "Got Away Easily" (in Hebrew). NRG Maariv. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
  43. ^ a b "Remembering the Fallen Sons of Arad" (in Hebrew). HaTzvi Arad. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  44. ^ Tourist Map of Arad (Map). Arad Municipality. § Het4. Archived from the original on 8 November 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  45. ^ Tourist Map of Arad (Map). Arad Municipality. § Vav4. Archived from the original on 8 November 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  46. ^ Tourist Map of Arad (Map). Arad Municipality. § He4. Archived from the original on 8 November 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  47. ^ Gold Atlas (Map) (2007 ed.). 1:13,500. Mapa. p. 362. § Dalet3. ISBN 965-521-082-0.
  48. ^ "International Biking Race in Arad". 443rd Edition. HaTzvi Arad. 13 March 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2008.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  49. ^ "Riding Arad 2008 – Details" (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  50. ^ Riskin, Anat (28 February 2008). "Advanced X-Ray Acquired for Frontal Emergency Ward". 441st Edition. HaTzvi Arad. Retrieved 18 March 2008.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  51. ^ Riskin, Anat (26 September 2008). "The Police Chief has a Vision". 471st Edition. HaTzvi Arad. Retrieved 4 October 2008.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  52. ^ a b Riskin, Anat (13 March 2008). "Award for Excellence to Arad Police". 443rd Edition. HaTzvi Arad. Retrieved 13 March 2008.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  53. ^ a b "Property Crime in Arad Station's Jurisdiction, Including Sodom, over the Years" (in Hebrew). Arad Municipality. Archived from the original on 25 September 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  54. ^ Atlas, Yonat (18 July 2008). "Knife-Wielding Man Killed by Police After Threatening Ex-Wife". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
  55. ^ a b "Elementary schools in Arad" (in Hebrew). HaTzvi Arad. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
  56. ^ Bar Sadeh, Eliezer (27 December 2007). "2007 Summary" (PDF). 432nd Edition. HaTzvi Arad. p. 12. Retrieved 27 December 2007.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  57. ^ Riskin, Anat (13 August 2008). "Percentage of Matriculation Receivers in Arad at 49.67% This Year – Just Above the National Average and Lower than Last Year". 465th Edition. HaTzvi Arad. Retrieved 16 August 2008.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  58. ^ "Neot Avraham Bnei Akiva Ulpana in Arad". Jewish Agency for Israel. 18 June 2006. Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  59. ^ "Tlalim School – About Us". Retrieved 14 October 2008.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  60. ^ "SOS Children's Village Arad (Neradim)". SOS Children's Villages – Canada. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  61. ^ Hoffman, Gil (10 July 2008). "Student Program's Exit Deals New Blow to Arad". Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  62. ^ "Synagogues in Arad" (in Hebrew). HaTzvi Arad. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  63. ^ "Arad – Mikvah" (in Hebrew). HaTzvi Arad. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  64. ^ "Continuation of Do Unto Your Neighbor". Haaretz. 28 April 2004. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  65. ^ Gold Atlas (Map) (2007 ed.). 1:100,000. Mapa. p. 44. § Het24. ISBN 965-521-082-0.
  66. ^ Esther Levinson, ed. (April 1994). Statistical Yearbook for the Negev, #1 1993 (in Hebrew). Beersheba, Israel: Mi UMa Tikshoret Mekomit. p. 73.
  67. ^ "Arad railway extension approved". Globes. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  68. ^ Riskin, Anat (27 August 2008). "They Are Coming". 467th Edition. HaTzvi Arad. Retrieved 15 March 2008.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  69. ^ Shmuelevich, Yeruham (11 June 2007). "The Railway is Coming to the Haredi Community" (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
  70. ^ "In the Station... in Arad, Stood a Locomotive". HaTzvi Arad. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  71. ^ Riskin, Anat. "The Arad Central Bus Station". HaTzvi Arad. Retrieved 30 November 2007.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  72. ^ Bar Sadeh, Eliezer (31 May 2007). "Arad – Metropoline". HaTzvi Arad. Retrieved 15 March 2008.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  73. ^ "Official Website" (in Hebrew). Egged Bus Cooperative. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  74. ^ "Official Website" (in Hebrew). Metropoline. Archived from the original on 29 April 2005. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  75. ^ Grinberg, Mijal (15 October 2007). "Arad mayor deposed: instead of eight who flunked recovery plan". Haaretz (in Hebrew). Retrieved 30 November 2007.
  76. ^ "Tali Ploskov in a Landslide Victory" (in Hebrew). HaTzvi Arad. 15 April 2010. Archived from the original on 19 April 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
  77. ^ Bar Sadeh, Eliezer (3 January 2008). "The Municipal Budget of Arad for 2008 was Passed". HaTzvi Arad. Retrieved 30 November 2007.[dead link] (in Hebrew)
  78. ^ Aisbitt, Shawn. "Weirdest Laws in the World!". Archived from the original on 18 October 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
  79. ^ "Auxiliary Law for Arad (Cleanliness and Smoking Prohibition), 1965" (in Hebrew). Israel Ministry of the Interior. Archived from the original (RTF) on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  80. ^ "Auxiliary Laws in Local Authorities – List of Auxiliary Laws for Local Authority – Arad" (in Hebrew). Israel Ministry of the Interior. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
  81. ^ "Auxiliary Laws of Arad" (in Hebrew). Arad Municipality. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  82. ^ a b Gutterman, Dov. "Arad (Israel)". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  83. ^ "Israeli writer and peace activist Amos Oz at his home in Arad in southern Israel". Independent. 19 March 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  84. ^ "Sister Cities of Wilmington, Inc. – Background". Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2008.
  85. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr Destrict" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  86. ^ "Dinslaken-Arad (translated by Google)". Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  87. ^ "Sister Cities – The City Diplomacy of Burlington, Vermont". Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2008.

External links[edit]