Timeline of Jerusalem

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a timeline of major events in the history of Jerusalem; a city that had been fought over sixteen times in its history.[1] During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[2]


  • 4500–3500 BC: First settlement established near Gihon Spring (earliest archaeological evidence).

Bronze Age: Canaanite city[edit]

New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE

Iron Age[edit]

The Levant showing Jerusalem in c. 830 BCE
Neo-Assyrian Empire at its greatest extent
Achaemenid Empire under Darius III

Independent Israelite capital[edit]

Jerusalem becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Judah and, according to the Bible, for the first few decades even of a wider united kingdom of Judah and Israel, under kings belonging to the House of David.

Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian period[edit]

Persian (Achaemenid) period[edit]

  • 516 BCE: The Second Temple is built in the 6th year of Darius the Great.
  • 458 BCE: The third wave of Babylonian returnees is Ezra's Aliyah.
  • 445 BCE: The fourth and final wave of Babylonian returnees is Nehemiah's Aliyah. Nehemiah is the appointed governor of Judah, and rebuilds the Old City walls.
  • 410 BCE: The Great Assembly is established in Jerusalem.
  • 365/364-362 and c. 347 BCE: Judea participates in Egyptian-inspired and Sidonian-led revolts against the Achaemenids, and coins minted in Jerusalem are reflecting the short-lived autonomy.[11][12] Achaemenid general Bagoas is possibly the same as 'Bagoses' in Josephus' Antiquities, who defiles the Temple and imposes taxes on sacrifices performed there.[11][13][14]

Hellenistic period[edit]

Kingdoms of the Diadochi and others before the battle of Ipsus, c. 303 BCE
The Seleucid Empire in c. 200 BCE
Hasmonean Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome Alexandra

Under Alexander, the Ptolemies, and Seleucids[edit]

Hasmonean kingdom[edit]

Roman period[edit]

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus, 30BCE – 6CE
Pompey in the Temple, 63 BCE (Jean Fouquet 1470–1475)

Early Roman period[edit]

Events from the New Testament (Canonical Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, Epistles -Pauline and Catholic- and the Book of Revelation) offer a narrative regarded by most Christians as Holy Scripture. Much of the narrative lacks historical anchors and Christian apologists have tried to calculate a historical chronology of events without reaching consensual conclusions. All such events and dates listed here are presented under this reservation, and are generally lacking non-sectarian scholarly recognition. They are marked in the list with a cross [†].

Jesus at the Temple (Giovanni Paolo Pannini c. 1750)
"Flevit super illam" (He wept over it); by Enrique Simonet, 1892.
The siege of Jerusalem, 70 CE (David Roberts, 1850)

Late Roman period (Aelia Capitolina)[edit]

The Roman empire at its peak under Hadrian showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 CE.

Byzantine period[edit]

Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476
Helena finding the True Cross (Italian manuscript, c. 825)
The Madaba Map depiction of sixth-century Jerusalem
Church of the Holy Sepulchre: Jerusalem is generally considered the cradle of Christianity.[41]

Early Muslim period[edit]

Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates[edit]

The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads.
  Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
An anachronistic map of the various de facto independent emirates after the Abbasids lost their military dominance (c. 950)

Fatimid and Seljuk rule[edit]

Crusader/Ayyubid period[edit]

First Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099–1187)[edit]

Crusader states in 1180
The capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders on 15 July 1099
1. The Holy Sepulchre, 2. The Dome of the Rock, 3. Ramparts
A woodcut of Jerusalem in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

Ayyubids and Second Crusader Kingdom[edit]

The Crusader defeat at the Battle of Hattin leads to the end of the First Crusader Kingdom (1099–1187). During the Second Crusader Kingdom (1192–1291), the Crusaders can only gain a foothold in Jerusalem on a limited scale, twice through treaties (access rights in 1192 after the Treaty of Jaffa; partial control 1229–39 after the Treaty of Jaffa and Tell Ajul), and again for a last time between 1241 and 1244.[61]

Jerusalem under the Ayyubid dynasty after the death of Saladin, 1193
The Bahri Mamluk Dynasty 1250–1382

Mamluk period[edit]

Ottoman period[edit]

Early Ottoman period[edit]

The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683, showing Jerusalem

Late Ottoman period[edit]

Map of Jerusalem in 1883
"Independent" Vilayet of Jerusalem shown within Ottoman administrative divisions in the Levant after the reorganisation of 1887–88

British Mandate[edit]

Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the Sykes–Picot Agreement
General Allenby enters Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, 11 December 1917

After 1948[edit]

Partition into West (Israel) and East (Jordan)[edit]

Reunification after 1967[edit]

The Temple Mount as it appears today. The Western Wall is in the foreground with the Dome of the Rock in the background
  • 1967 5–11 June: The Six-Day War. Israel captures the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights.

Graphical overview of Jerusalem's historical periods[edit]

Reunification of JerusalemEast JerusalemWest JerusalemBritish EmpireOttoman EmpireMamluk SultanateAyyubid dynastyKingdom of JerusalemAyyubid dynastyKingdom of JerusalemFatimid CaliphateSeljuk EmpireFatimid CaliphateIkhshidid dynastyAbbasid CaliphateTulunidsAbbasid CaliphateUmayyad CaliphateRashidun CaliphateByzantine EmpireSasanian EmpireByzantine EmpireRoman EmpireHasmonean dynastySyrian WarsAchaemenid EmpireNeo-Babylonian EmpireLate Period of ancient EgyptNeo-Babylonian EmpireNeo-Assyrian EmpireKingdom of JudahKingdom of Israel (united monarchy)JebusitesNew Kingdom of EgyptCanaan

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Steckoll, Solomon H., The gates of Jerusalem, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1968, preface
  2. ^ "Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.. According to Eric H. Cline's tally in Jerusalem Besieged.
  3. ^ a b c d e Slavik, Diane. 2001. Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem. Geneva, Illinois: Runestone Press, p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8225-3218-7
  4. ^ Mazar, Benjamin. 1975. The Mountain of the Lord. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., p. 45. ISBN 0-385-04843-2
  5. ^ Jane M. Cahill (2003). "Jerusalem at the time of the United Monarchy". In Vaughn, Andrew; Killebrew, Ann. E. (eds.). Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-58983-066-0.
  6. ^ Crouch, C. L. (1 October 2014). Israel and the Assyrians: Deuteronomy, the Succession Treaty of Esarhaddon, and the Nature of Subversion. SBL Press. ISBN 978-1-62837-026-3. Judah's reason(s) for submitting to Assyrian hegemony, at least superficially, require explanation, while at the same time indications of its read-but-disguised resistance to Assyria must be uncovered... The political and military sprawl of the Assyrian empire during the late Iron Age in the southern Levant, especially toward its outer borders, is not quite akin to the single dominating hegemony envisioned by most discussions of hegemony and subversion. In the case of Judah it should be reiterated that Judah was always a vassal state, semi-autonomous and on the periphery of the imperial system, it was never a fully-integrated provincial territory. The implications of this distinction for Judah's relationship with and experience of the Assyrian empire should not be underestimated; studies of the expression of Assyria's cultural and political powers in its provincial territories and vassal states have revealed notable differences in the degree of active involvement in different types of territories. Indeed, the mechanics of the Assyrian empire were hardly designed for direct control over all its vassals' internal activities, provided that a vassal produced the requisite tribute and did not provoke trouble among its neighbors, the level of direct involvement from Assyria remained relatively low. For the entirety of its experience of the Assyrian empire, Judah functioned as a vassal state, rather than a province under direct Assyrian rule, thereby preserving at least a certain degree of autonomy, especially in its internal affairs. Meanwhile, the general atmosphere of Pax Assyriaca in the southern Levant minimized the necessity of (and opportunities for) external conflict. That Assyrians, at least in small numbers, were present in Judah is likely - probably a qipu and his entourage who, if the recent excavators of Ramat Rahel are correct, perhaps resided just outside the capital - but there is far less evidence than is commonly assumed to suggest that these left a direct impression of Assyria on this small vassal state... The point here is that, despite the wider context of Assyria's political and economic power in the ancient Near East in general and the southern Levant in particular, Judah remained a distinguishable and semi-independent southern Levantine state, part of but not subsumed by the Assyrian empire and, indeed, benefitting from it in significant ways.
  7. ^ Chronology of the Israelite Tribes from The History Files (historyfiles.co.uk)
  8. ^ Ben-Dov, Meir. 1985. In the Shadow of the Temple. New York, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., pp. 34–35. ISBN 0-06-015362-8
  9. ^ Bright, John (1980). A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-664-22068-6.
  10. ^ http://studentreader.com/jerusalem/#Edict-of-Cyrus Student Reader Jerusalem: "When Cyrus captured Babylon, he immediately issued the Edict of Cyrus, a decree that those who had been exiled by the Babylonians could return to their homelands and start rebuilding."
  11. ^ a b Betlyon, John Wilson (1986). "The Provincial Government of Persian Period Judea and the Yehud Coins". Journal of Biblical Literature. Society of Biblical Literature. 105 (4): 633–642 [637–638]. doi:10.2307/3261210. JSTOR 3261210.
  12. ^ Steiner, Margreet L.; Killebrew, Ann E., eds. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE. Oxford Handbooks. OUP Oxford. pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-0-19-166255-3. Retrieved 24 September 2020. For the Sidonian revolt of King Tennes.
  13. ^ Richard Gottheil; Gotthard Deutsch; Martin A. Meyer; Joseph Jacobs; M. Franco (1906). "Jerusalem". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23 September 2020 – via JewishEncyclopedia.com.
  14. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XI, Chapter 7. William Whiston edition, London 1737. Accessed 23 September 2020.
  15. ^ "Maccabean Revolt". Virtualreligion.net. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  16. ^ Josephus The Jewish Wars (1:60)
  17. ^ Barthold Georg Niebuhr; Marcus Carsten Nicolaus von Niebuhr (1852). Lectures on Ancient History. Taylor, Walton, and Maberly. p. 465.
  18. ^ "Josephus, chapter 10". Christianbookshelf.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  19. ^ Encyclopaedic dictionary of the Bible, Volume 5, William George Smith. Concept Publishing Company. 1893. ISBN 978-81-7268-095-4.
  20. ^ Sievers, 142
  21. ^ Martin Sicker (2001). Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 Years of Roman-Judaean Relations. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-275-97140-3.
  22. ^ "Armenians of Jerusalem Launch Project To Preserve History and Culture". Pr-inside.com. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  23. ^ Aram Topchyan; Aram Tʻopʻchʻyan (2006). The Problem of the Greek Sources of Movses Xorenacʻi's History of Armenia. Isd. ISBN 978-90-429-1662-3.
  24. ^ Jacob Neusner (1997). A History of the Jews in Babylonia. Vol. 2. Brill Archive. p. 351.
  25. ^ "And when he had ordained five councils (συνέδρια), he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara, the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris in Galilee." Josephus, Ant. xiv 54:
  26. ^ "Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in connection with the decree of the Roman governor of Syria, Gabinius (57 BCE), who abolished the constitution and the then existing form of government of Palestine and divided the country into five provinces, at the head of each of which a sanhedrin was placed ("Ant." xiv 5, § 4)." via Jewish Encyclopedia: Sanhedrin:
  27. ^ Armstrong 1996, p. 126
  28. ^ Sicker 2001, p. 75
  29. ^ Dave Winter (1999). Israel Handbook: With the Palestinian Authority Areas. Footprint Handbooks. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-900949-48-4.
  30. ^ Emil Schürer; Géza Vermès; Fergus Millar (1973). History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ. A&C Black. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-567-02242-4.
  31. ^ "Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews – Book XVIII, "Cyrenius came himself into Judea, which was now added to the province of Syria"". Ccel.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  32. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, pp. 247–248: "Consequently, the province of Judea may be regarded as a satellite of Syria, though, in view of the measure of independence left to its governor in domestic affairs, it would be wrong to say that in the Julio-Claudian era Judea was legally part of the province of Syria."
  33. ^ A History of the Jewish People, H.H. Ben-Sasson editor, 1976, p. 247: "When Judea was converted into a Roman province [in 6 CE, p. 246], Jerusalem ceased to be the administrative capital of the country. The Romans moved the governmental residence and military headquarters to Caesarea. The centre of government was thus removed from Jerusalem, and the administration became increasingly based on inhabitants of the Hellenistic cities (Sebaste, Caesarea and others)."
  34. ^ John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, vol. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, p. 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
  35. ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2010). Turning the Tables on Jesus: The Mandaean View. In Horsley, Richard (March 2010). Christian Origins. ISBN 978-1-4514-1664-0.(pp94-111). Minneapolis: Fortress Press
  36. ^ Drower, Ethel Stefana (1953). The Haran Gawaita and the Baptism of Hibil-Ziwa. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.
  37. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pp. 254–256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37–41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then—if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment—there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
  38. ^ See also Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities XX, ix, 1.
  39. ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, III, xxxii.
  40. ^ Christopher Mackay. "Ancient Rome a Military and Political History" 2007: 230
  41. ^ Beckles Willson, Rachel (2013). Orientalism and Musical Mission: Palestine and the West. Cambridge University Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-107-03656-7.
  42. ^ Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: First Nicaea: Canon VII: "Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honored, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honor."; "It is very hard to determine just what was the "precedence" granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the "metropolis" referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge William Beveridge?] consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to."
  43. ^ Browning, Robert. 1978. The Emperor Julian. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, p. 176. ISBN 0-520-03731-6
  44. ^ Horn, Cornelia B.; Robert R. Phenix, Jr. 2008. The Lives of Peter the Iberian, Theodosius of Jerusalem, and the Monk Romanus. Atlanta, Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature, p. lxxxviii. ISBN 978-1-58983-200-8
  45. ^ The Emperor Justinian and Jerusalem (527–565)
  46. ^ Hussey, J.M. 1961. The Byzantine World. New York, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, p. 25.
  47. ^ Karen Armstrong. 1997. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York, New York: Ballantine Books, p. 229. ISBN 0-345-39168-3
  48. ^ "Surah Al-Isra - 1-111".
  49. ^ "Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 281: "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)."". Islamicity.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  50. ^ Ostrogorsky, George. 1969. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 104. ISBN 0-8135-0599-2
  51. ^ Leslie J. Hoppe (2000). The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-5081-3.
  52. ^ Theophilus (of Edessa) (2011). Theophilus of Edessa's Chronicle and the Circulation of Historical Knowledge in Late Antiquity and Early Islam. Liverpool University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-84631-698-2.
  53. ^ Elizabeth Jeffreys; Fiona K. Haarer (2006). Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies: London, 21-26 August, 2006. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-7546-5740-8.
  54. ^ Miriam Greenblatt (2002). Charlemagne and the Early Middle Ages. Benchmark Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-7614-1487-2.
  55. ^ Majid Khadduri (2006). War and Peace in the Law of Islam. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6.
  56. ^ a b Guy le Strange (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems from AD 650 to 1500, Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers. Florence: Palestine Exploration Fund.
  57. ^ Ross Burns (2005). Damascus: A History. Routledge. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-27105-9.
  58. ^ Singh, Nagendra. 2002. "International Encyclopedia of Islamic Dynasties"'
  59. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. 2007. Historic Cities of the Islamic World
  60. ^ Runciman, Steven. 1951. A History of the Crusades: Volume 1 The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–290. ISBN 0-521-06161-X
  61. ^ Adrian J. Boas (2001). Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades: Society, Landscape and Art in the Holy City Under Frankish Rule. London: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-415-23000-1.
  62. ^ Larry H. Addington (1990). The Patterns of War Through the Eighteenth Century. Midland book. Indiana University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-253-20551-3. ... in the Sixth Crusade, Frederick II ...concluded a treaty with the Saracens in 1229 that placed Jerusalem under Christian control but allowed Muslim and Christian alike freedom of access to the religious shrines of the city. ... Within fifteen years of Frederick's departure from the Holy Land, the Khwarisimian Turks, successors to the Seljuks, rampaged through Syria and Palestine, capturing Jerusalem in 1244. (Jerusalem would not be ruled again by Christians until the British occupied it in December 1917, during World War I.)
  63. ^ Denys Pringle (2007). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: Volume 3, The City of Jerusalem: A Corpus. The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-521-39038-5. During the period of Christian control of Jerusalem between 1229 and 1244 ... {{cite book}}: External link in |series= (help)
  64. ^ Annabel Jane Wharton (2006). Selling Jerusalem: Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks. University of Chicago Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-226-89422-5. (footnote 19): It is perhaps worth noting that the same sultan, al-Malik al-Kamil, was later involved in the negotiations with Emperor Frederick II that briefly reestablished Latin control in Jerusalem between 1229 and 1244.
  65. ^ Hossein Askari (2013). Conflicts in the Persian Gulf: Origins and Evolution. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-137-35838-7. Later, during the years 1099 through 1187 AD and 1229 through 1244 AD, Christian Crusaders occupied Jerusalem ...
  66. ^ Moshe Ma'oz, ed. (2009). The Meeting of Civilizations: Muslim, Christian, and Jewish. Sussex Academic Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-84519-395-9. (Introduction by Moshe Ma'oz) ... When the Christian Crusaders occupied Jerusalem (AD 1099–1187, 1229–1244) ...
  67. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Jerusalem (After 1291)". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  68. ^ Jerusalem Timeline From David to the 20th century Archived 27 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
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  74. ^ Salmon, Thomas (1744). Modern History, Or, The Present State of All Nations: Describing Their Respective Situations, Persons, Habits, and Buildings, Manners, Laws and Customs ... Plants, Animals, and Minerals. p. 461.
  75. ^ Fisk and King, 'Description of Jerusalem,' in The Christian Magazine, July 1824, p. 220. Mendon Association, 1824.
  76. ^ Shvarts, Shifra. "Health Services in Eretz Israel (Palestine) in the Nineteenth Century." The Workers' Health Fund in Eretz Israel: Kupat Holim, 1911-1937, Boydell & Brewer, 2002, pp. 7–19. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt7zsv0p.9. Accessed 12 Oct. 2022.
  77. ^ Shvarts, 2002, p. 10.
  78. ^ "Batei Mahseh Square". Jerusalem Municipality. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
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  83. ^ Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. pp. 295–313. ISBN 0-8050-4848-0. The group assembled at the Wall shouting "the Wall is ours". They raised the Jewish national flag and sang Hatikvah, the Israeli anthem. The authorities had been notified of the march in advance and provided a heavy police escort in a bid to prevent any incidents. Rumours spread that the youths had attacked local residents and had cursed the name of Muhammad.
  84. ^ Levi-Faur, Sheffer and Vogel, 1999, p. 216.
  85. ^ Sicker, 2000, p. 80.
  86. ^ 'The Wailing Wall in Jerusalem Another Incident', The Times, Monday, 19 August 1929; p. 11; Issue 45285; col D.
  87. ^ Prince-Gibson, Eetta (27 July 2006). "Reflective truth". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
  88. ^ Yoav Gelber, Independence Versus Nakba; Kinneret–Zmora-Bitan–Dvir Publishing, 2004, ISBN 965-517-190-6, p.104
  89. ^ "Christians in the Holy Land" Edited by Michael Prior and William Taylor. ISBN 0-905035-32-1. p. 104: Albert Aghazarian "The significance of Jerusalem to Christians". This writer states that "Jews did not own any more than 20% of this quarter" prior to 1948
  90. ^ "Palestine and Palestinians", p. 117.
  91. ^ "Trump Jerusalem move sparks Israeli-Palestinian clashes", BBC News, 7 December 2017
  92. ^ "Paraguay becomes third country to open embassy in Jerusalem". Retrieved 23 May 2018.


External links[edit]